Estimating Some Social and Environmental Effects from Rail/Road Substitution in the Trans-European Transport Corridors
AbstractThis paper deals with estimating possible effects in terms of mitigating the social and environmental impacts which could be achieved by operating the rail freight train instead of the road truck services in the given Trans-European transport corridor during the specified period of time. In general, these impacts embrace noise, congestion, traffic incidents/accidents (Safety), and energy consumption and related GHG emissions (Greenhouse Gases). Each type of impact, specific to particular mode, is analyzed and modeled, thus enabling its quantitative estimation and intermodal comparison under the given circumstances. In particular, energy consumption and related GHG emissions and their costs have been under focus. The total costs of the above-mentioned impacts in the given case have also been estimated. Thus, they both represent a solid base for the assessment of the social-environmental feasibility of the future similar cases.
EC, (2008), Customer-driven Rail-Freight Services on a European Mega-Corridor Based on Advanced Business and Operating Models (CREAM), (different Deliverables), European Commission, Brussels, Belgium
EC, (2001), Real Cost Reduction of Door-to-Door Intermodal Transport (RECORDIT), DG VII- R&D Project, Integrated Transport Chains, European Commission, Brussels, Belgium
EC, (2009a), Rail Transport Accidents Decreasing in 2007, European Commission, EUROSTAT, Statistics in Focus 52/2009, Transport, Brussels, Belgium, p. 3
ERSO, (2007), Traffic Safety: Basic Figures 2007 - Heavy Goods Vehicles and Buses, European Road Safety Observatory, Safety Net, Transport, http://ec.europa.eu/transport/wcm/road_safety/erso/index.html
EC, (2005), Energy and Fuel Consumption from Heavy Duty Vehicles, COST 346, Final Report on the Action, European Cooperation in the Field of Scientific and Technical Research, Brussels, Belgium
Profilidis, V.A., (2006), Railway Management and Engineering, (3rd ed.), Ashgate Publishing Limited, Aldershot, UK
CE Delft, (2008), Handbook on Estimation of External Costs in the Transport Sector, (Produced within the Study Internalization Measures and Policies for All External Cost of Transport (IMPACT)), CE Delft-Solutions for Environment Economy and Technology, Delft, The Netherlands
IFEU, (2008), Energy Savings by Light Weighting, Final Report, IFEU- Heidelberg, Germany, p. 61
IEA, (2009), CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion, Statistical Report, International Energy Agency, Paris, France, p. 530
EC, (2009), EU Energy and Transport in Figures, Statistical Pocket Book, Directorate General for Energy and Transport, Brussels, Belgium
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).