Berth Occupancy at Container Terminals: Comparison of Analytical and Empirical Results

  • Zoran Radimilović
  • Saša Jovanović
Keywords: berlh occupancy, container ship, container terminal, bulk queueing, ship turnaround time


The different kinds of container ships with variable numberof containers arrive to porls, each container requiring single service.In this paper, an analytical approach is developed with thehelp of bulk queueing system, to analyze and to plan the berlhoccupancy depending on the number of containers in on boardand on shore and on the average waiting time/average servicetime ratios. The appropriate numerical results and graphs arepresented for direct determination of the berlh occupancies fordifferent number of containers.The arrivals of container ships at container terminal areusually a stochastic process. The number of berths required willdepend on the berth occupancy. In order to determine the numberof berths required, we have to know the distribution of shiparrivals and the distribution of ship service times includingpeak factors or seasonal variations. In this paper, the relationshipbetween berlh occupancy and container ship turnaroundtime at container terminal is based on bulk-arrivals and singleservice queueing models. We have assumed that the inter-arrivaltimes and service times follow appropriate probability distributionswith determined limitations. Howeve1; given resultscan be used with a high degree of confidence for first approximatesolutions and as the control of berth occupancy or wrivalof ship to berlh.


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How to Cite
Radimilović Z, Jovanović S. Berth Occupancy at Container Terminals: Comparison of Analytical and Empirical Results. Promet [Internet]. 1 [cited 2024Jun.12];18(2):99-103. Available from:
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