Fully Immersive Virtual Reality in Logistics Modelling and Simulation Education

  • Dario Ogrizović University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies
  • Ana Perić Hadžić University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies
  • Mladen Jardas University of Rijeka, Faculty of Maritime Studies
Keywords: virtual reality, modelling, simulation, education, logistics, immersive VR


With the increasing development and popularisation of information and communication technology, new challenges are posed to higher education in the modernisation of teaching in order to make education and training of students as effective as possible. It is therefore very important to develop and experiment with appropriate development tools, explore their benefits and effectiveness, and integrate them into existing learning strategies. The emergence of a computer-generated digital environment that can be directly experienced, actions that can determine what is happening in it, growth of technological characteristics, and decline in prices of virtual reality hardware leads to a situation that cannot be ignored. This paper investigated users' perceptions on the potential use of fully immersive virtual reality head-mounted displays in a discrete-event simulation of logistics processes. The dynamic nature of virtual environments requires active participation which causes greater engagement, motivation, and interest aided by interaction and challenges.


Robertson GG, Card SK, Mackinlay J. Three views of virtual reality: Nonimmersive virtual reality. Computer. 1993;26(2): 81. DOI: 10.1109/2.192002

Cruz-Neira C, et al. The CAVE: Audio Visual Experience Automatic Virtual Environment. Communications of the ACM. 1992;35(6): 65-72. DOI: 10.1145/129888.129892

Freina L, Ott M. A literature review on immersive virtual reality in education: State of the art and perspectives. Proceedings of the 11th International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education (eLSE), 23-24, April 2015, Bucharest, Romania; 2015. p. 8. DOI: 10.12753/2066-026X-15-020

Kumar V, Gulati S, Deka B, Sarma H. Teaching and Learning Crystal structures through Virtual Reality based systems. Advanced Engineering Informatics. 2021;50: 101362. DOI: 10.1016/j.aei.2021.101362

Duarte ML, Santos LR, Guimarães Júnior JB, Peccin MS. Learning anatomy by virtual reality and augmented reality. A scope review. Morphologie. 2020;104(347): 254-266. DOI: 10.1016/j.morpho.2020.08.004

Bernardo A. Virtual Reality and Simulation in Neurosurgical Training. World Neurosurgery. 2017;106: 1015-1029. DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2017.06.140

Arrighi G, Siang See Z, Jones D. Victoria Theatre virtual reality: A digital heritage case study and user experience design. Digital Applications in Archaeology and Cultural Heritage. 2021;21: e00176. DOI: 10.1016/j.daach.2021.e00176

Xu Z, et al. A virtual reality based fire training simulator with smoke hazard assessment capacity. Advances in Engineering Software. 2014;68: 1-8. DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.10.004

Morélot S, Garrigou A, Dedieu J, N'Kaoua B. Virtual reality for fire safety training: Influence of immersion and sense of presence on conceptual and procedural acquisition. Computers & Education. 2021;166: 104145. DOI: 10.1016/j.advengsoft.2013.10.004

Kind S, et al. Haptic Interaction in Virtual Reality Environments for Manual Assembly Validation. Procedia CIRP. 2020;91: 802-807. DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2020.02.238

Bellalouna F. New Approach for Industrial Training Using Virtual Reality Technology. Procedia CIRP. 2020;93: 262-267. DOI: 10.1016/j.procir.2020.03.008

Kulik JA. Meta-analytic studies of findings on computer-based instruction. In: Baker EL, O'Neil HF Jr. (eds.) Technology assessment in education and training. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.; 1994. p. 9-33. DOI: 10.1037/0003-066x.34.4.307

Wenzel S, Jessen U. The integration of 3-D visualization into the simulation-based planning process of logistics systems. Simulation. 2001;77(3-4): 114-127. DOI: 10.1177/003754970107700304

Korošec P, Bole U, Papa G. A multi-objective approach to the application of real-world production scheduling. Expert Systems with Applications. 2013;40(15). DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2013.05.035

Mujber TS, Szecsi T, Hashmi MS. Virtual reality applications in manufacturing process simulation. Journal of Materials Processing Technology. 2004;155(1): 1834-1838. DOI: 10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2004.04.401

Akpan IJ, Shanker M. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of virtual reality, 3D visualization and 2D visual interactive simulation: An exploratory meta-analysis. Simulation. 2019;95(2): 145-170. DOI: 10.1177/0037549718757039

Sutherland IE. The ultimate display. In: Proceedings of the IFIP Congress; 1965. p. 506-508. DOI: 10.1145/1461551.1461591

Sutherland IE. A head-mounted three dimensional display. In: Proceedings of AFIPS, 9-11 Dec. 1968, San Francisco, California, USA. New York: Association for Computing Machinery; 1968. p. 757-764. DOI: 10.1145/1476589.1476686

Howlett EM. Wide angle color photography method and system. US4406532 (Patent), 1983.

NASA. The Virtual Interface Environment Workstation (VIEW). Available from: https://www.nasa.gov/ames/spinoff/new_continent_of_ideas [Accessed 12th May 2021].

Pantelidis VS. Virtual reality in the classroom. Educational Technology. 1993;33(4): 23-7. DOI: 10.1002/(SICI)1099-0542

Bagheri R. Virtual Reality: The Real Life Consequences. UC Davis Business Law Journal. 2016;17: 17-101. Available from: https://blj.ucdavis.edu/archives/vol-17-no-1/BLJ-17.1-Bagheri.pdf

Kushner D. Virtual reality’s moment. IEEE Spectrum. 2014;51(1): 34-37. DOI: 10.1109/MSPEC.2014.6701429

Profatilov DA, Bykova ON, Olkhovskaya MO. Crowdfunding: Online charity or a modern tool for innovative projects implementation?. Asian Social Science. 2014;11(3): 146-151. DOI: 10.5539/ass.v11n3p146

Kumar BR. Major Acquisitions by Facebook. In: Wealth Creation in the World’s Largest Mergers and Acquisitions. Springer; 2019. p. 321-327. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02363-8_39

Goradia I, Doshi J, Kurup L. A review paper on Oculus Rift & Project Morpheus. International Journal of Current Engineering and Technology. 2014;4(5): 3196-200. DOI:

Dempsey P. The teardown: HTC Vive VR headset. Engineering & Technology. 2016;11(7-8): 80-81. DOI: 10.1049/et.2016.0731

Angelov V, Petkov E, Shipkovenski G, Kalushkov T. Modern virtual reality headsets. 2020 International Congress on Human-Computer Interaction, Optimization and Robotic Applications (HORA), 26-28 June 2020, Ankara, Turkey. IEEE; 2020. DOI: 10.1109/HORA49412.2020.9152604

Nakano K, et al. Head-mounted display with increased downward field of view improves presence and sense of self-location. IEEE Transactions on Visualization & Computer Graphics. 2021;27(11): 4204-14. DOI: 10.1109/TVCG.2021.3106513

Fink A. Survey Research Methods. International Encyclopaedia of Education. 3rd ed. 2010. p. 152-160. DOI: 10.1016/B978-0-08-044894-7.00296-7

Baker JD. Online survey software. In: Bocarnea MC, Reynolds RA, Baker JD. (eds.) Online instruments, data collection, and electronic measurements: Organizational advancements. IGI Global; 2013. p. 328-334. DOI: 10.4018/978-1-4666-2172-5

Beaverstock M, et al. Applied simulation: Modeling & analysis using Flexsim. 5th ed. Flexsim Software Products Inc.; 2017.

Akpan IJ, Brooks RJ. Users’ perceptions of the relative costs and benefits of 2D and 3D visual displays in discrete event simulation. Simulation. 2012;88(4): 464-480. DOI: 10.1177/0037549711423734

How to Cite
Ogrizović D, Perić Hadžić A, Jardas M. Fully Immersive Virtual Reality in Logistics Modelling and Simulation Education. Promet - Traffic&Transportation. 2021;33(6):799-06. DOI: 10.7307/ptt.v33i6.3941