Multiclass Classification with Imbalanced Datasets for Car Ownership Demand Model – Cost-Sensitive Learning
In terms of the travel demand prediction from the household car ownership model, if the imbalanced data were used to support the transportation policy via a machine learning model, it would negatively affect the algorithm training process. The data on household car ownership obtained from the study project for the expressway preparation in the Khon Kaen Province (2015) was an unbalanced dataset. In other words, the number of members of the minority class is lower than the rest of the answer classes. The result is a bias in data classification. Consequently, this research suggested balancing the datasets with cost-sensitive learning methods, including decision trees, k-nearest neighbors (kNN), and naive Bayes algorithms. Before creating the 3-class model, a k-folds cross-validation method was applied to classify the datasets to define true positive rate (TPR) for the model’s performance validation. The outcome indicated that the kNN algorithm demonstrated the best performance for the minority class data prediction compared to other algorithms. It provides TPR for rural and suburban area types, which are region types with very different imbalance ratios, before balancing the data of 46.9% and 46.4%. After balancing the data (MCN1), TPR values were 84.4% and 81.4%, respectively.
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