Construction of Road Safety Composite Indicator Using Grey Relational Analysis
Aggregation of different variables into one road safety performance index is a popular concept in evaluating road safety and comparing the performance of territories/entities. This paper presents the development of a novel and innovative weighting methodology using grey relational analysis. Based on the proposed model, ten hierarchical road safety indicators were selected in terms of a two-layered model with three categories related to behaviour, safety and system. Grey weights are assigned to the categorized indicators in each layer, and the grey road safety composite indicator for each entity (21 selected territories) is calculated by the weighted sum approach. With relatively high weights, this systematic methodology can serve the policy makers in targeting the risk domains where improvements are needed. The results clearly illustrate effectiveness in addressing a large number of indicators with hierarchical structures.
World Health Organization. Global status report on road safety 2018. Available from: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/global-status-report-on-road-safety-2018
European Council. European Council conclusions on road safety. Available from: http://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-9994-2017-INIT/en/pdf
World Health Organization. Decade of Action for Road Safety 2011–2020. Saving millions of lives. 2011. Available from: http://www.who.int/violence_injury_prevention/publications/road_traffic/saving_millions_lives_en.pdf?ua=1
United Nations. Transforming Our World: The 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. Available from: https://sustainabledevelopment.un.org/post2015/transformingourworld
Ministry of the Interior. Strategy for improvement of road traffic safety 2010-2019. Podgorica; 2009.
Government of Montenegro. Action plan for Strategy for improvement of road traffic safety implementation. Podgorica; 2011.
European Commission. Road Safety in the European Union – Trends, statistics and main challenges. Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/transport/road_safety/sites/roadsafety/files/vademecum_2018.pdf
European Transport Safety Council. 2010 Road Safety Target Outcome: 100,000 fewer deaths since 2001. ETSC. 5th Road Safety PIN Report, 2011.
Al-Haji G. Development of an International Index to Measure Road Safety Performance. Linköping Studies in Science and Technology, Norrköping, Sweden; 2005.
Al-Haji G. Road Safety Development Index (RSDI) Theory, Philosophy and Practice. PhD thesis No. 1100. Department of Science and Technology, Linköping University, Sweden; 2007.
Hakkert AS, Gitelman V, Vis MA (ed.). Road Safety Performance Indicators: Theory. Deliverable D3.6 of the EU FP6 Project SafetyNet; 2007.
Wegman F, Commandeur J, Doveh E, Eksler V. SUNflowerNext: Towards A Composite Road Safety Performance Index. SWOV, Leidschendam; 2008.
Hermans E, Van den Bossche F, Wets G. Combining road safety information in a performance index. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2008;40: 1337-1344. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2008.02.004
European Commission. Handbook of constructing composite indicators. Methodology and user quide. Paris; 2008. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/sdd/42495745.pdf
Wegman F, Oppe S, Benchmarking road safety performances of countries. Safety Science. 2010;48: 1203-1211. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2010.02.003
Gitelman V, Doveh E, Hakkert S. Designing a composite indicator for road safety. Safety Science. 2010;48: 1212-1224. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2010.01.011
Pešić D, Vujanić M, Lipovac K, Antić B. New method for benchmarking traffic safety level for the territory. Transport. 2013;28(1): 69-80. DOI: 10.3846/16484142.2013.781539
Kukić D, Lipovac K, Pešić D, Rosić M. The differences of road safety performance of countries based on outcome indicators. Safety Science. 2016;89: 279-287. DOI: 10.1016/j.ssci.2016.07.005
Tešić M, Hermans E, Lipovac K, Pešić, D. Identifying the most significant indicators of the total road safety performance index. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2008;113: 263-278. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.02.003
Lu M, Wevers K. Application of grey relational analysis for evaluating road traffic safety measures: Advanced driver assistance systems against infrastructure redesign. IET Intelligent Transport Systems. 2007;1(1): 3-14. DOI: 10.1049/iet-its-20060022
Ma Z, Shao C, Ma S, Ye Z. Constructing road safety performance indicators using Fuzzy Delphi Method and Grey Delphi Method. Expert Systems with Applications. 2011;38: 1509-1514. DOI: 10.1016/j.eswa.2010.07.062
René SH, Becker U, Manz H. Grey system theory time series prediction applied in road traffic safety in Germany. IFAC-PapersOnLine. 2016;49(3): 231-236. DOI: 10.1016/j.ifacol.2016.07.039
Liu Y, Huang X, Duan J, Zhang H. The assessment of traffic accident risk based on grey relational analysis and fuzzy comprehensive evaluation method. Nat Hazard. 2017;88: 1409-1422. DOI: 10.1007/s11069-017-2923-2
Deng J. Introduction to grey system theory. The Journal of Grey System. 1989;1(1): 1-24.
Chen F, Wu J, Chen X, Wang J, Wang D. Benchmarking road safety performance: Identifying a meaningful reference (best-in-class). Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2016;86: 76-89. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2015.10.018
SafetyNet. State-of-the-art Report on Road Safety Performance Indicators. Work Package 3, Integrated Project; 2005. Available from: https://erso.swov.nl/safetynet/fixed/WP3/Deliverable%20wp%203.1%20state%20of%20the%20art.pdf
IRTAD – International Transport Forum. Road Safety Annual Report 2014. Available from: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.org/transport/road-safety-annual-report-2014_irtad-2014-en
Antić B, Grdinić M, Pešić D. Pajković V. Benchmarking of the road safety performance among the regions by using DEA. Transportation Research Procedia. 2020;45: 78-86. DOI: 10.1016/j.trpro.2020.02.065
Cheng X, Wu Y, Ning P, Cheng P, Schwebel CD, Hu G. Comparing road safety performance across countries: Do data source and type of mortality indicator matter? Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2018;121: 129-133. DOI: 10.1016/j.aap.2018.09.012
European Commission. 2018 road safety statistics: What is behind the figures? Available from: https://ec.europa.eu/commission/presscorner/detail/en/MEMO_19_1990
Copyright (c) 2021 Mirjana Grdinić-Rakonjac, Boris Antić, Dalibor Pešić, Vladimir Pajković
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).