Environmental Impacts of Introducing LNG as Alternative Fuel for Urban Buses – Case Study in Slovakia

Keywords: liquefied natural gas, diesel, bus, GHG emissions, consumption

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to assess the possibility of decreasing the chosen environmental indicators like energy consumption, greenhouse gas (GHG) production and other exhaust pollutants in the selected region in Slovakia by introducing Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) buses into bus transport. The assessment is carried out by comparing the consumption and emissions of current buses (EURO 2) in real operation, with potential buses (EURO 6) and with pilot LNG buses testing on the same lines. Comparison took place under the same conditions over the same period. The study measures the energy consumption and GHG production per bus. The research paper also compares two methodologies of calculation. The first calculation is according to the European Standard EN 16258: 2012 which specifies the general methodology for evaluation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions (all services - cargo, passengers or both). The second calculation is according to the Handbook of Emission Factors for Road Transport (HBEFA). The results of the calculation are compared  by both methods, and the most suitable version of the bus in terms of GHG emissions is proposed.

Author Biographies

Martin Jurkovič, University of Zilina, Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication

Department of Water Transport

Tomáš Kalina, University of Zilina, Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication

Department of Water Transport

Tomáš Skrúcaný, University of Zilina, Faculty of Operation and Economics of Transport and Communication

Department of Road Transport

Piotr Gorzelanczyk, Stanislaw Staszic University of Applied Sciences in Pila

Department of Transport

Vladimír Ľupták, Faculty of Technology, Institute of Technology and Business in Ceske Budejovice

Department of Transport and Logistics

References

Jia S, Yan G, Shen A. Traffic and emissions impact of the combination scenarios of air pollution charging fee and subsidy. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018;197(1): 678-689. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2018.06.117

Slovak Republic. Strategic Transport Development Plan of the Slovak Republic up to 2030 – Phase II. Bratislava: Ministry of Transport and Construction of the Slovak Republic; 2016.

Madudova E, Dávid, A. Identifying the derived utility function of transport services: Case study of rail and sea container transport. In: TRANSCOM 2019. International Scientific Conference on Sustainable, Modern and Safe Transport. 29-31 May 2019, Horný Smokovec, Slovakia. Amsterdam: Elsevier Science; 2019. p. 1096-1102.

Barta D, Mruzek M. Factors influencing the hybrid drive of urban public transport buses. Management System in Production Engineering. 2015;20(4): 213-218. Available from: doi:10.12914/MSPE-04-04-2015

Caulfield B, Ryan F. Examining the benefits of using bio-CNG in urban bus operations. Transport Research Part D. 2010;15(6): 362-365.

Kalasova A, Culik K, Kubikova S. Smart City - Model of Sustainable Development of Cities. In: Automotive safety 2018. 11th International Scientific and Technical Conference on Automotive Safety. New York, USA: Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers; 2018. p. 1-5.

Skrucany T, Kendra M, Kalina T, Jurkovic M, Vojtek M, Synak F. Environmental Comparison of Different Transport Modes. Our sea: International Journal of Maritime Science & Technology. 2018;65(4): 192-196.

Bassi A. Liquefied natural gas (LNG) as fuel for road heavy duty vehicles technologies and standardization. SAE Pap. 2011. Available from: doi:10.4271/2011-24-0122

Keeling CD, Piper SC, Bacastow RB, Wahlen M, Whorf TP, Heimann M, Meijer HA. Atmospheric CO2 and 13CO2 exchange with the terrestrial biosphere and oceans from 1978 to 2000. Observations and carbon cycle implications. In: Ehleringer JR, Cerling T, Dearing MD (Eds.) A history of atmospheric CO2 and its effects on plants, animals, and ecosystems. New York: Springer Verlag; 2005. p. 83-113.

Bociaga B. Environmental impact of public transport in the Gornoslasko-zaglebiowska metropolis. Scientific Journal of Silesian University of Technology-Series Transport. 2019;103: 5-13. Available from: doi:10.20858/sjsutst.2019.103.1

Korenova L. Transport and its impact on the environment in the Slovak Republic. Slovak Environmental Agency; 2013.

FueLCNG. Project supported by the CEF program.

Nadanyiova M. Implementation of the green marketing principles in the Slovak automotive industry. In: Transport Means 2016. Proceedings of the 20th international scientific conference, 5-7 October 2016, Juodkrante, Lithuania. Kaunas University of Technology; 2016. p. 699-704.

Yan F, Xu B, Zheng Z. Study on the Construction of an Urban Liquefied Natural Gas Bus and Its Cold Energy Recovery. Energy Procedia. 2016;104: 515-519. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2016.12.087

Sharafian A, Talebian H, Blomerus P, Herrera O, Merida W. A review of liquefied natural gas refueling station designs. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 2017;69: 503-513. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.rser.2016.11.186

Wang A, Ge J, Tan J, Fu M, Shan A-N, Ding Y, Zhao H, Liang B. On-road pollutant emission and fuel consumption characteristics of buses in Beijing. J. Environ. Sci. 2011;23: 419-426. Available from: doi:10.1016/S1001-0742(10)60426-3

Zhang S, Yu L, Song G. Emissions characteristics for heavy-duty diesel trucks under different loads based on vehicle-specific power. Transp. Res. Rec. J. Transp. Res. Board. 2017;2627: 77-85. Available from: doi:10.3141/2627-09

Yu Q, Li T, Li H. Improving urban bus emission and fuel consumption modeling by incorporating passenger load factor for real world driving. Appl. Energy. 2016;161: 101-111. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.apenergy.2015.09.096

McJeon H, Edmonds J, Bauer N, Clarke L, Fisher B, Flannery B-P, et al. Limited impact on decadal-scale climate change from increased use of natural gas. Nature. 2014;514: 482-485. Available from: doi:10.1038/nature13837

International Gas Union. LNG as fuel. In: Proceedings of the 26th World Gas Conference. 2015, Paris, France; 2015. p. 1-120.

Caban J, Droździel P, Krzywonos L, Rybicka I- K, Šarkan B, Vrábel J. Statistical Analyses of Selected Maintenance Parameters of Vehicles of Road Transport Companies. Advances in Science and Technology Research Journal. 2019;13(1): 1-13. Available from: doi:10.12913/22998624/92106

Bruglieri M, Mancini S, Pisacane O. The Green Vehicle Routing Problem with Capacitated Alternative Fuel Stations. Computers & Operations Research. 2019. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.cor.2019.07.017

Song Q, Wang Z, Wu Y, Li J, Yu D. Duan H, Yuan W. Could urban electric public bus really reduce the GHG emissions: A case study in Macau? Journal of Cleaner Production. 2018;172: 2133-2142. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.jclepro.2017.11.206

Zhao H, Burke A, Zhu L. Analysis of class 8 hybrid-electric truck technologies using diesel, LNG, electricity, and hydrogen, as the fuel for various applications. EVS27 International Battery, Hybrid and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Symposium, Barcelona, Spain; 2013. p. 1-16. Available from: doi:10.1109/EVS.2013.6914957

Danielis R, Giansoldati M, Rotaris L. A probabilistic total cost of ownership model to evaluate the current and future prospects of electric cars uptake in Italy. Energy Policy. 2018;119: 268-281.

Correa G, Munoz P, Falaguerra T, Rodriguez CR. Performance comparison of conventional, hybrid, hydrogen and electric urban buses using well to wheel analysis. Energy. 2017;141: 537-549.

Enviroportal.sk. Emisie skleníkových plynov z dopravy. Available from: https://www.enviroportal.sk/indicator/detail?id=1081&print=yes. [Accessed 22 May 2020].

Kalina T, Jurkovic M, Sapieta M, Binova H, Sapietova A. Strength Characteristics of LNG Tanks and their Application in Inland Navigation. AD ALTA-Journal of Interdisciplinary Research. 2017;7(2): 274-281.

Pfoser S, Schauer O, Costa Y. Acceptance of LNG as an alternative fuel: Determinants and policy implications. Energy Policy. 2018;120: 259-267. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.enpol.2018.05.046

Skrucany T, Gnap J. Energy Intensity and Greenhouse Gases Production of the Road and Rail Cargo Transport Using a Software to Simulate the Energy Consumption of a Train. In: Telematics – Support of Transport. 14th international conference on Transport systems telematics, Katowice/Kraków/Ustroń, Poland. Selected Papers. Berlin: Springer-Verlag; 2014. p. 263-272.

CEN. European standard EN 16 258:2012. Methodology for calculation and declaration of energy consumption and GHG emissions of transport services (freight and passengers); 2013.

HBEFA. Handbuch Emissionsfaktoren des Strassenverkehrs 3.1 – Dokumentation. BUWAL, UBA Berlin, UBA Wien; 2010. Available from: www.hbefa.net

Xu J, Xuan G, Li Y, Li Z, Hu Y, Jin Y, Huang Y. Study on the squat of extra-large scale ship in the Three Gorges ship lock. Ocean Engineering. 2016;123: 65-74. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.oceaneng.2016.07.001

Borge R, Miguel I, Paz D, Lumbreras J, Perez J, Rodriguez E. Comparison of road traffic emission models in Madrid (Spain). Atmospheric Environment. 2012;62: 461-471. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2012.08.073

Csiszar C, Sandor Z. Method for analysis and prediction of dwell times at stops in local bus transportation. Transport. 2017;32(3): 302-313. Available from: doi:10.3846/16484142.2016.119040

U.S. Energy Information Administration. Available from: https://www.eia.gov/todayinenergy/detail.php?id=9991 [Accessed 20 February 2020].

Dizo J, Steisunas S, Blatnicky M. Vibration analysis of a coach with the wheel-flat due to suspension parameters changes. Procedia Engineering. 2017;192: 107-112. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.proeng.2017.06.019

Pan Y, Chen S, Qia F, Ukkusuri S, Tang K. Estimation of real-driving emissions for buses fuelled with liquefied natural gas based on gradient boosted regression trees. Science of the Total Environment. 2019;660: 741-750. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.01.054

Pietrzak K, Pietrzak O. Environmental Effects of Electromobility in a Sustainable Urban Public Transport. Sustainability. 2020;12(1052).

Chang C-C, Lia Y-T, Chang Y-W. Life cycle assessment of alternative energy types – including hydrogen – for public city buses in Taiwan. International Journal of Hydrogen Energy. 2019;44(33): 18472-18482. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.ijhydene.2019.05.073

Song H, Ou X, Yuan J, Yu M, Wang C. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of diesel/LNG heavy-duty vehicle fleets in China based on a bottom-up model analysis. Energy. 2017;140(1): 966-978. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.energy.2017.09.011

Pan Y, Qiao F, Tang K, Chen S, Ukkusuri SV. Understanding and estimating the carbon dioxide emissions for urban buses at different road locations: A comparison between new-energy buses and conventional diesel buses. Science of the Total Environment. 2020;703. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.135533

Song H, Ou X, Yuan J, Yu M, Wang C. Energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions of diesel/LNG heavy-duty vehicle fleets in China based on a bottom-up model analysis. Energy. 2017;140(1): 966-978. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.energy.2017.09.011

Directive 2014/94/EU of the European Parliament and of the Council of 22 October 2014 on the deployment of alternative fuels infrastructure; 2014.

Galierikova A, Sosedova J. Environmental aspects of transport in the context of development of inland navigation. Ekologia Bratislava. 2016;35(3): 279-288.

Published
2020-11-10
How to Cite
1.
Jurkovič M, Kalina T, Skrúcaný T, Gorzelanczyk P, Ľupták V. Environmental Impacts of Introducing LNG as Alternative Fuel for Urban Buses – Case Study in Slovakia. PROMET [Internet]. 2020Nov.10 [cited 2020Nov.29];32(6):837-4. Available from: https://traffic.fpz.hr/index.php/PROMTT/article/view/3564
Section
Articles