Characteristics and Mitigation Measures of Aircraft Pollutant Emissions at Nanjing Lukou International Airport (NKG), China
The assessment of local air pollution due to aircraft emissions at/near the airport is an important issue from the standpoint of environment and human health, but has not received due attention in China. In this paper, the pollutant emissions (i.e. HC, CO, NOx, SOx and PM) from aircraft during landing and take-off (LTO) cycles at Nanjing Lukou Airport (NKG) in 2016 were investigated using an improved method, which considered the taxi-in and –out time calculated based on the real data from the Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC), instead of using the referenced time recommended by ICAO. First, the pollutant emissions and their characteristics were studied from different perspectives. Second, two various mitigation measures of emissions were proposed, and the performance of emission reduction was analysed. Our analysis shows that: (1) A320 and B738 emitted the largest emissions at NKG; (2) pollutants were mainly emitted during the taxi mode, followed by climb mode; (3) B738 had the lowest emissions per (seat•LTO) among all aircraft, while CRJ had the lowest emissions per unit LTO; (4) shortening the taxiing time and upgrading aircraft engines are both effective measures to mitigate pollutant emissions.
Linn WS, Szlachcic Y, Henry G, et al. Air pollution and daily hospital admissions in Metropolitan Los Angeles. Environ Health Perspect. 2000;108: 427-434.
Barrett SRH, Britter RE, Waitz IA. Global mortality attributable to aircraft cruise emissions. Environ Sci Technol. 2010;44: 7736-7742.
ICAO. Environmental report 2010: Aviation and Climate Change. Montreal, Quebec, 2010.
Unal A, Hu Y, Chang ME, et al. Airport related emissions and impacts on air quality: Application to the Atlanta International Airport. Atmos Environ. 2005;39: 5787-5798.
Herndon SC, Jayne JT, Lobo P, et al. Commercial aircraft engine emissions characterization of in-use aircraft at Hartsfield-Jackson Atlanta International Airport. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42: 1877-1883.
Carslaw DC, Ropkins K, Laxen D, et al. Near-field commercial aircraft contribution to nitrogen oxides by engine, aircraft type, and airline by individual plume sampling. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42: 1871-187.
Dodson RE, Andres Houseman E, Morin B, et al. An analysis of continuous black carbon concentrations in proximity to an airport and major roadways. Atmos Environ. 2009;43: 3746-3773.
Mazaheri M, Bostrom TE, Johnson GR, et al. Composition and morphology of particle emissions from in-use aircraft during takeoff and landing. Environ Sci Technol. 2013;47: 5235-5242.
Yim SHL, Lee GL, Lee IH, et al. Global, regional and local health impacts of civil aviation emissions. Environ Res Lett. 2015;10: 034001.
Saravanamuttoo HIH, Rogers GFC, Cohen H. Gas Turbine Theory (5th Ed.); 2001.
Kurniawan JS, Khardi S. Comparison of methodologies estimating emissions of aircraft pollutants, environmental impact assessment around airports. Environ Impact Assess Rev. 2011;31: 240-252.
Grampella M, Lo PL, Martini G, et al. The impact of technology progress on aviation noise and emissions. Transp Res Part A Policy Pract. 2017;103: 525-540.
Song S, Shon Z. Emissions of greenhouse gases and air pollutants from commercial aircraft at international airports in Korea. Atmos Environ. 2012;61: 148-158.
Vujović D, Todorović N. An assessment of pollutant emissions due to air traffic at Nikola Tesla International Airport, Belgrade, and the link between local air quality and weather types. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2017;56: 85-94.
Kesgin U. Aircraft emissions at Turkish airports. Energy. 2006;31: 372-384.
Bo X, Xue X, Xu J, et al. Aviation’s emissions and contribution to the air quality in China. Atmos Environ. 2019;201: 121-131.
ICAO. Airport Air Qualitye Manual Doc 9889; 2011.
Masiol M, Harrison RM. Aircraft engine exhaust emissions and other airport-related contributions to ambient air pollution: A review. Atmos Environ. 2014;95: 409-455.
EEA. EMEP/EEA air pollutant emission inventory guidebook. Available from: https://www.eea.europa.eu/publications/emep-eea-guidebook-2016 [Accessed 6 March
MEE. Technical guide for compiling air pollutant emission inventory of nonroad moving sources. Beijing; 2014.
Lu C, Liu H, Song D, et al. The Establishment of LTO Emission Inventory of Civil Aviation Airports Based on Big Data. IOP Conf Ser Earth Environ Sci. 2018;128: 012069.
Nikoleris T, Gupta G, Kistler M. Detailed estimation of fuel consumption and emissions during aircraft taxi operations at Dallas/Fort Worth International Airport. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2011;16: 302-308.
Khadilkar H, Balakrishnan H. Estimation of aircraft taxi fuel burn using flight data recorder archives. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2012;17: 532-537.
Herndon SC, Wood EC, Northway MJ, et al. Aircraft Hydrocarbon Emissions at Oakland International Airport. Environ Sci Technol. 2009;43: 1730-1736.
Wood EC, Herndon SC, Timko MT, et al. Speciation and Chemical Evolution of Nitrogen Oxides in Aircraft Exhaust near Airports. Environ Sci Technol. 2008;42: 1884-1891.
Simonetti I, Maltagliati S, Manfrida G. Air quality impact of a middle size airport within an urban context through EDMS simulation. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2015;40: 144-154.
Yılmaz İ. Emissions from passenger aircrafts at Kayseri Airport, Turkey. J Air Transp Manag. 2017;58: 176-182.
Winther M, Kousgaard U, Oxbøl A. Calculation of odour emissions from aircraft engines at Copenhagen Airport. Sci Total Environ; 2006;366: 218-232.
Stettler MEJ, Eastham S, Barrett SRH. Air quality and public health impacts of UK airports. Part I: Emissions. Atmos Environ. 2011;45: 5415-5424.
Taghizadeh SA, Shafabakhsh GH, Aghayan I. Evaluation of aircraft emission at Imam Khomeini International Airport and Mehrabad International Airport. Int J Environ Sci Technol. 2019;16: 6587-6598.
Yang X, Cheng S, Lang J, et al. Characterization of aircraft emissions and air quality impacts of an international airport. J Environ Sci (China). 2018;72: 198-207.
Chilongola FD, Ahyudanari E. Aviation and Aircraft Engine Emissions at Juanda International Airport. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering; 2019. Available from: doi:10.1088/1757-899X/645/1/012022
Zhou Y, Jiao Y, Lang J, et al. Improved estimation of air pollutant emissions from landing and takeoff cycles of civil aircraft in China. Environ Pollut. 2019;249: 463-471.
Ashok A, Balakrishnan H, Barrett SRH. Reducing the air quality and CO2climate impacts of taxi and takeoff operations at airports. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2017;54: 287-303.
Graver BM, Frey HC. Estimation of air carrier emissions at Raleigh-Durham international airport. In: Proceedings of the Air and Waste Management Association’s Annual Conference and Exhibition, AWMA; 2009. p. 2502-2516.
Mazaheri M, Johnson GR, Morawska L. An inventory of particle and gaseous emissions from large aircraft thrust engine operations at an airport. Atmos Environ. 2011;45: 3500-3507.
Pham V Van, Tang J, Alam S, et al. Aviation emission inventory development and analysis. Environ Model Softw. 2010;25: 1738-1753.
Carslaw DC, Beevers SD, Ropkins K, et al. Detecting and quantifying aircraft and other on-airport contributions to ambient nitrogen oxides in the vicinity of a large international airport. Atmos Environ. 2006;40: 5424-5434.
Winther M, Kousgaard U, Ellermann T, et al. Emissions of NOx, particle mass and particle numbers from aircraft main engines, APU’s and handling equipment at Copenhagen Airport. Atmos Environ. 2015;100: 218-229.
Mokalled T, Le Calvé S, Badaro-Saliba N, et al. Identifying the impact of Beirut Airport’s activities on local air quality - Part I: Emissions inventory of NO2and VOCs. Atmos Environ. 2018;187: 435-444.
Song S, Shon Z. National Emissions of Greenhouse Gases and Air Pollutants from Commercial Aircraft in the Troposphere over South Korea. Terr Atmos Ocean Sci. 2014;25: 61-76.
Fan W, Sun Y, Zhu T, et al. Emissions of HC, CO, NOx, CO2, and SO2 from civil aviation in China in 2010. Atmos Environ. 2012;56: 52-57.
Kim BY, Fleming GG, Lee JJ, et al. System for assessing Aviation’s Global Emissions (SAGE), Part 1: Model description and inventory results. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2007;12: 325-346.
Simone NW, Stettler MEJ, Barrett SRH. Rapid estimation of global civil aviation emissions with uncertainty quantification. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2013;25: 33-41.
Wilkerson JT, Jacobson MZ, Malwitz A, et al. Analysis of emission data from global commercial aviation: 2004 and 2006. Atmos Chem Phys. 2010;10: 6391-6408.
Turgut ET, Usanmaz O. An assessment of cruise NOx emissions of short-haul commercial flights. Atmos Environ. 2017;171: 191-204.
Kauffman CW, Subramanian AK, Rogers DW, et al. Ambient Effects on Idling Gas Turbine Emissions. J Aircr. 1981;18: 15-22.
EPA. Alternative control techniques document——NOx emissions from Stationary Gas Turbines (No. EPA-453/R-93-007). North Carolina; 1993.
Novak D, Bucak T, Radišić T. Development, design and flight test evaluation of continuous descent approach procedure in FIR Zagreb. Promet - Traffic Transp. 2009;21: 319-329.
Xu C, Zhu J, Hu R. Index decomposition of airport carbon emission factors in Jiangsu province based on Log mean divasia index. Aeronaut Comput Tech. 2018;48: 86-90.
Kuzu SL. Estimation and dispersion modeling of landing and take-off (LTO) cycle emissions from Atatürk International Airport. Air Qual Atmos Heal. 2018;11: 153-161.
CAAC. The 13th Five-Year Plan of Energy Conservation and Emissions Reduction in Civil Aviation Sector. Available from: http://www.caac.gov.cn/XXGK/XXGK/ZCFBJD/201702/t20170228_42798.html [Accessed 6 March 2020].
CAAC. Action Plan for the Construction of Four-type Airport (2020-2035). Available from: http://www.caac.gov.cn/XXGK/XXGK/ZCFB/202001/P020200110664548555485.pdf [Accessed 6 March 2020].
Ma J, Zhou X. Development of a three-dimensional inventory of aircraft NOx emissions over China. Atmos Environ. 2000;34: 389-396.
Wayson RL, Fleming GG, Iovinelli R. Methodology to estimate particulate matter emissions from certified commercial aircraft engines. J Air Waste Manag Assoc. 2009;59: 91-100.
EASA. ICAO Aircraft Engine Emissions Databank. Available from: https://www.easa.europa.eu/easa-and-you/environment/icao-aircraft-engine-emissions-databank [Accessed 9 December 2018].
SAE. AIR5715:Procedure for the Calculation of Aircraft Emissions. New York; 2009.
Chen D, Hu M, Han K, et al. Short/medium-term prediction for the aviation emissions in the en route airspace considering the fluctuation in air traffic demand. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2016;48: 46-62.
People. Nanjing Lukou Airport was shut down due to fog and haze. Available from: http://js.people.com.cn/html/2013/12/07/273712.html [Accessed 6 March 2020].
Environmental Protection Bureau of Nanjing. List of petitioners (No.12). Available from: http://hbj.nanjing.gov.cn/zthg/zyhjbhdchtk/dczg/201806/t20180623_446942.html [Accessed 28 May 2019].
Chati YS, Balakrishnan H. Analysis of Aircraft Fuel Burn and Emissions in the Landing and Take Off Cycle using Operational Data. In: 6th International Conference on Research in Air Transportation; 2014.
Cheng SY, Jin YQ, Liu L, et al. Estimation of atmospheric mixing heights over large areas using data from airport meteorological stations. J Environ Sci Heal Part A. 2002;37: 991-1007.
Neuling U, Kaltschmitt M. Techno-economic and environmental analysis of aviation biofuels. Fuel Process Technol. 2018;171: 54-69.
Turgut ET, Cavcar M, Usanmaz O, et al. Investigating actual landing and takeoff operations for time-in-mode, fuel and emissions parameters on domestic routes in Turkey. Transp Res Part D Transp Environ. 2017;53: 249-262.
Lulić Z, Mavrin I, Mahalec I. Aspects of Using Biological Regenerative Fuels in Internal Combustion Engines. Promet - Traffic Transp. 1998;10: 75-78.
Airbus. A320neo. Available from: https://www.airbus.com/aircraft/passenger-aircraft/a320-family/a320neo.html [Accessed 6 March 2020].
Copyright (c) 2020 Rong Hu, Jialin Zhu, Junfeng Zhang, Lijun Zheng, Bowen Liu
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).