Attitudes of Experienced Seafarers as Predictor of ISM Code Implementation: A Croatian Example
The aim of this paper is to identify what attitudes towards safety performance indicators influence the attitudes towards successfulness of ISM Code implementation among contemporary seafarers. Secondly, the goal of the research was to obtain insight into the seafarer’s attitudes towards the current state of ISM implementation and safety performance. Consequently, a sample of N=330 seafarers was examined regarding their attitudes towards safety performance variables and ISM Code implementation. By using multiple regression analysis it was concluded that well designed and structured safety rules and procedures, positive work environment and adequate communication can make significant contributions to seafarers’ attitudes towards ISM implementation.
Department of Transport. Formal Investigation, mv Herald of Free Enterprise. London: The Stationery Office. Report of Court No. 8074, 1987. Available from: https://assets.publishing.service.gov.uk/media/54c-1704ce5274a15b6000025/FormalInvestigation_HeraldofFreeEnterprise-MSA1894.pdf [Accessed 2nd September 2018].
International Maritime Organization (IMO). Available from: www. imo.org [Accessed 2nd September 2018].
International Management Code for the Safe Operation of Ships and for Pollution Prevention (International Safety Management (ISM) Code), Revised ISM Code. International Maritime Organization (IMO); 2014.
Guidance for IACS Auditors to the ISM Code, IACS Recommendation No. 41, Revision 4. International Association of Classification Society (IACS); 2005. Available from: http://www.iacs.org.uk/publications/recommendations/41-60/rec-41-rev4-corr1-cln/ [Accessed 2nd September 2017].
Čorović BM, Djurović P. Research of Marine Accidents through the Prism of Human Factors. Promet – Traffic & Transportation. 2013;25(4): 369-377. Available from: doi:10.7307/ptt.v25i4.1210
Anderson P. Cracking the code: the relevance of the ISM code and its impact on shipping practices. London, UK: Nautical Institute; 2003.
Bhattacharya S. The effectiveness of the ISM Code: A qualitative enquiry. Marine Policy. 2012;36: 528-535. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.marpol.2011.09.004
Lapalainen FJ, Kuronen J, Tapaninen U. Evaluation of the Ism Code in the Finnish Shipping Companies. Journal of Maritime Research. 2012;IX(1): 23-32. Available from: https://www.jmr.unican.es/index.php/jmr/article/download/164/160
Storkensen KV, Antonsen S, Kongsvik T. One size fits all? Safety management regulation of ship accidents and personal injuries. Journal of Risk Research. 2017;20(9): 1154-1172. Available from: doi:10.1080/13669877.2016.1147487
Safety and Shipping Review 2017. Allianz Global Corporate & Specialty; 2017. Available from: https://www.agcs.allianz.com/content/dam/onemarketing/agcs/agcs/reports/AGCS-Safety-Shipping-Review-2017.pdf [Accessed 20th October 2018].
Annual Overview of Marine Casualties and Incidents 2018. European Maritime Safety Agency; 2018. Available from: http://emsa.europa.eu/publications/technical-reports-studies-and-plans/item/3406-annual-overview-of-marine-casualties-and-incidents-2018.html [Accessed 20th October 2018].
Batalden BM, Sydnes AK. Maritime safety and the ISM code: a study of investigated casualties and incidents. WMU Journal of Maritime Affairs. 2014;13(1): 3-25. Available from: doi:10.1007/s13437-013-0051-8
Reiman T, Pietikainen E. Leading indicators of system safety – Monitoring and driving the organizational safety potential. Safety Science. 2012;50(10): 1993-2000. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2011.07.015
Jalonen R, Salmi K. Safety performance indicators for Maritime Safety Management, Literature review. Espoo, Finland: Helsinki University of Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Department of Applied Mechanics; 2009.
Reiman T, Pietikainen E. 2010:07 Indicators of safety culture – selection and utilization of leading safety performance indicators. Available from: https://www.vtt.fi/inf/julkaisut/muut/2010/SSM-Rapport-2010-07.pdf [Accessed 1st September 2018].
Port State Control in the Asia-Pacific Region. Annual Report 2015-2017. Available from: http://www.tokyo-mou.org [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Paris Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control. Annual Report 2015-2017. Available from: www.parismou.org [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Riyadh Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control. Annual Report 2015-2017. Available from: www.riyadhmou.org [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Mediterranean Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control. Annual Report 2015-2017. Available from: http://22.214.171.124/Annual_rep.aspx [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Indian Ocean Memorandum Of Understanding on Port State Control. Annual Report 2015-2017. Available from: http://www.iomou.org/ [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Memorandum of Understanding on Port State Control for West and Central African Region- Abuja MoU. Annual report 2015-2017. Available from: http://www.abujamou.org [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Port State Control in the Black Sea Region. Annual Report 2015-2017. Available from: http://www.bsmou.org [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Port State Control Caribbean MoU. Annual Report 2015-2017. Available from: http://www.caribbeanmou.org/ [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Latin America MoU. Documento Presenta do Por-Secretaría Del Acuerdo Viña Del Mar. Annual Report 2015-2017. Available from: http://alvm.prefecturanaval.gob.ar [Accessed 22nd October 2018].
Mengolini A, Debarberis L. Effectiveness evaluation methodology for safety processes to enhance organizational culture in hazardous installations. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2008;155(1-2): 243-252. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.jhazmat.2007.11.078
Grabowski M, Ayyalasomayajula P, Merrick J, Harrald JR, Roberts K. Leading indicators of safety in virtual organizations. Safety Science. 2007;45(10): 1013-1043. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2006.09.007
Guldenmund FW. The nature of safety culture: a review of theory and research. Safety Science. 2000;34(1-3): 215-257. Available from: doi:10.1016/S0925-7535(00)00014-X
Schwatka NV, Hecker S, Goldenhar LM. Defining and Measuring Safety Climate: A Review of the Construction Industry Literature. Annals of Occupational Hygiene. 2016;60(5): 537-550. Available from: doi:10.1093/annhyg/mew020
Zohar D. Safety Climate in Industrial Organizations: Theoretical and Applied Implications. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1980;65(1): 96-102. Available from: doi:10.1037/0021-9010.65.1.96
Griffin M, Neal A. Perceptions of safety at work: A framework for linking safety climate to safety performance, knowledge, and motivation. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology. 2000;5(3): 347-358. Available from: doi:10.1037fl1076-89126.96.36.1997
Neal A, Griffin MA, Hart PM. The impact of organizational climate on safety climate and individual behavior. Safety Science. 2000;34: 99-109. Available from: http://188.8.131.52/posh97/private/behavioral-safety/organizational-climate-Neal.pdf
Cooper MD, Phillips RA. Analysis of the safety climate and safety behavior relationship. Journal of Safety Research. 2004;35(5): 497-512. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2004.08.004
Schneider B, Ehrhart MG, Macey WH. Organizational Climate and Culture. Annual Review of Psychology. 2013;64(1): 361-388. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/230628709_Organizational_Climate_and_Culture
Griffin M, Curcuruto M. Safety Climate in Organizations. Annual Review of Organizational Psychology and Organizational Behavior. 2016;3: 191-212. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/296467983_Safety_Climate_in_Organizations
Flin R, Mearns K, O'Connor P, Bryden R. Measuring safety climate: identifying the common features. Safety Science. 2000;34: 177-192. Available from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?-doi=10.1.1.321.6940&rep=rep1&type=pdf
Bhattacharya Y. Measuring Safety Culture on Ships Using Safety Climate: A Study among Indian Officers. International Journal of e-Navigation and Maritime Economy. 2015;3: 161-180. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.enavi.2015.12.006
Wadsworth EJK, Smith PA. Safety culture, advice and performance. Policy and Practice in Health and Safety. 2009;07(1): 5-31. Available from: http://psych.cf.ac.uk/home2/smith/safetycultureadviceperf.pdf
Zohar D, Luria G. A Multilevel Model of Safety Climate: Cross-Level Relationships Between Organization and Group-Level Climates. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2005;90(4): 616-628. Available from: doi:10.1037/0021-9010.90.4.616
Safety Climate Measurement User Guide and Toolkit Loughborough University. Available from: https://www.lboro.ac.uk/media/wwwlboroacuk/content/sbe/downloads/Offshore%20Safety%20Climate%20Assessment.pdf [Accessed 18th June 2017].
Civil Aviation Authority. Safety Health of Aviation Maintenance Engineering (SHoMe) Tool: User Guide. CAA PAPER 2003/11. Available from: https://publicapps.caa.co.uk/modalapplication.aspx?catid=1&pagetype=65&appid=11&mode=detail&id=1129 [Accessed 18th June 2017].
Wu TC, Liu CW, Lu MC. Safety climate in university and college laboratories: Impact of organizational and individual factors. Journal of Safety Research. 2007;38(1): 91-102. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2007.01.003
Huang YH, Zohar D, Robertson MM, Gareabet A, Lee J, Murphy LA. Development and validation of safety climate scales for lone workers using truck drivers as exemplar. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour. 2013;17: 5-19. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.trf.2012.08.011
Christian MS, Bradley JC, Wallace JC, Burke MJ. Workplace Safety: A Meta-Analysis of the Roles of Person and Situation Factors. Journal of Applied Psychology. 2009;94(5): 1103-1127. Available from: doi:10.1037/a0016172
Health and Safety Executive (HSE). A review of safety culture and safety climate literature for the development of the safety culture inspection toolkit. Research report 367, 2005. Available from: http://www.hse.gov.uk/research/rrpdf/rr367.pdf
Reason J. Managing the risks of organizational accidents. Aldershot, UK: Ashgate Publishing Limited; 2001.
Oltedal HA, Engen OA. Safety culture and safety management within the Norwegian-controlled shipping industry: State of art, interrelationships, and influencing factors. PhD thesis. Stavanger: University of Stavanger; 2011. Available from: file:///C:/Users/Korisnik/Downloads/Safetycultureandsafetymanagementwith-intheNorwegian-controlledshippingindustry.Stateofartinterrelationshipsandinfluencingfactors.pdf
Guidelines for implementing the occupational safety and health provisions of the Maritime Labour Convention, 2006. Geneva: International Labour Office; 2016. Available from: https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/@ed_dialogue/@sector/documents/normativeinstrument/wcms_325319.pdf [Accessed 15th May 2017].
Alexander ER, Helms MM, Wilkins RD. The Relationship Between Supervisory Communication and Subordinate Performance and Satisfaction Among Professionals. Public Personnel Management. 1989;18(4): 415-429. Available from: doi:10.1080/15531180903415939
Hoffman DA, Morgeson FP. Safety-Related Behavior as a Social Exchange: The Role of Perceived Organizational Support and Leader-Member Exchange. Journal of Applied Psychology. 1999;84(2): 286-296. Available from: doi:10.1037/0021-9010.84.2.286
Michael JH, Guo ZG, Wiedenbeck JK, Ray CD. Production supervisor impacts on subordinates' safety outcomes: An investigation of leader-member exchange and safety communication. Journal of Safety Research. 2006;37(5): 469-477. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.jsr.2006.06.004
Bielić T, Ivanišević D, Gundić A. Participation-Based Model of Ship Crew Management. Promet – Traffic & Transportation. 2014;26(5): 437-443. Available from: doi:10.7307/ptt.v26i5.1502
Podsakoff PM, Organ DW. Self-reports in organizational research: Problems and prospects. Journal of Management. 1986;12(4): 531-544. Available from: doi:10.1177%2F014920638601200408
Chang S-J, Witteloostuijn A, Eden L. From the Editors: Common Method Variance in International Business Research. Journal of International Business Studies. 2010;41(2): 178-184. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/46526095_From_the_Editors_Common_Method_Variance_in_International_Business_Research [Accessed 01 April 2019].
Copyright (c) 2019 Darijo Mišković, Igor Jelaska, Renato Ivče
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).