Evaluating the Impacts of Modern Streetcar Tracks on Bicycling Through an Intersection
Bicycle traffic flow suffers from the impact of tracks at an intersection in which a modern streetcar route is laid. The primary objective of this study involves discussing the impacts of modern streetcar tracks on bicycling through an intersection and developing a quantitative approach to calculate bicycle delay. Field investigations are conducted at eight sites in Nanjing and Shenyang, China. The sites are related to five intersections. Two of the five intersections are designed with a central modern streetcar style of track. Other two intersections operate on a roadside style of track and the last intersection is without tracks. The impact of the differences in bicycle speed are tested at each site based on the observed data. The results show that modern streetcar tracks exert a significant influence on bicycle speed and bicycling behavior and lead to delay, discomfort and unsafe conditions. Furthermore, a model is proposed to predict bicycle delay caused by modern streetcar tracks. The proposed model achieved a relatively accurate prediction. The findings of this study help in adequately understanding the impacts of modern streetcar tracks on bicycling. The results also suggest that longer crossing times should be used in signal design for bicycling at an intersection in which a modern streetcar route is laid.
Chinese Statistical Yearbook, Chinese Statistical Press, 1998-2015.
Transit Capacity and Quality of Service Manual (3rd Edition), Transportation Research Board, 2013.
Pucher, J., Ralph B. and Mark S.. Bicycling Renaissance in North America? An Update and Re-Appraisal of Cycling Trends and Policies. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 2011, 45(6): 451-475.
American Community Survey. US Census Bureau, 2012.
Martino, A., Silvia M. and Paola R.. The Promotion of Cycling. European Parliament's Committee on Transportation and Tourism, 2010.
Mead, J., Ann M., Charlie Z. and Libby T. Evaluation of Bicycle-Related Roadway Measures: A Summary of Available Research. North Carolina: Pedestrian and Bicycle Information Center, 2014.02.
Landis, B. W., et al. Intersection Level of Service for the Bicycle Through Movement [J]. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1828, 2003, PP. 101-106.
Guide for the Development of Bicycle Facilities(4th Edition)[S]. American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2013.
Forester, J. Bicycle Transportation: A Handbook for Cycling Transportation Engineers(2nd Edition)[M]. The MIT Press, Cambridge, Mass, 1994.
Rubins, D. and S. Handy. Times of Bicycle Crossings: Case Study of Davis, California [J]. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1939, 2005, PP. 22-27.
Ling, H. and J. P. Wu. A Study on Cyclist Behavior at Signalized Intersections [J]. IEEE Transactions on Intelligent Transportation Systems, 2004, 5(4): 293-299.
Taylor, D. Analysis of Traffic Signal Clearance Interval Requirements for Bicycle-Automobile Mixed Traffic[J]. Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1405, 1993, PP. 13-20.
Taylor, D. Contributions to Bicycle-Automobile Mixed-Traffic Science: Behavioral Models and Engineering Applications [D]. Ph. D. Dissertation, The University of Texas, Austin, 1998.
Jiang, H. F. et al. Research on Cyclists Microscopic Behavior Models at Signalized Intersection [J]. 16th Road Safety on Four Continents Conference, Beijing, China, 2013.
Vansteenkiste, P. et al. The Implications of Low Quality Bicycle Paths on Gaze Behavior of Cyclists: A Field Test. Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behavior, 2014, 23: 81-87.
Botma, H. Method to Determine Level of Service for Bicycle Paths and Pedestrian-Bicycle Paths. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 1502, 1995, PP. 38-44.
Wu, Z. J. et al. Evaluating the Impacts of Pavement Damage on Bicycle Traffic Flow on Exclusive Bicycle Paths. Presented at 94nd Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2015.
Li, Z. et al. Investigating Bicyclists' Perception of Comfort on Physically Separated Bicycle Paths in Nanjing, China. In Transportation Research Record: Journal of the Transportation Research Board, No. 2317, 2012, PP. 76-84.
Li, Z. et al. Exploring Factors Influencing Bicyclists’ 1 Perception of Comfort on Bicycle Facilities. Presented at 91st Annual Meeting of the Transportation Research Board, Washington, D.C., 2011.
Copyright (c) 2019 Baojie Wang
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).