Policy and Programs for Cycling in the City of Zagreb – A Critical Review
AbstractStudying cycling traffic issues in a beginner city – City of Zagreb, stems from unclear development policy, an increase in cycling volume, a large number of traffic accidents, an inadequate infrastructure and legislation, a small number of high quality studies and published papers, and the question, did current cycling policy and programs advance cycling? A comprehensive search of available literature, including data from the Zagreb Traffic Department, was made. These data do not adequately address the direction of causality, such as whether current cycling policy and programs advance cycling or whether cycling demand led to increased levels of cycling. This review paper suggests that, it is not yet possible to evaluate which pro-bicycle packages are the most effective and, development of cycling traffic requires a coordinated holistic planning strategy. Results could serve as a beacon light for similarly sized beginner cities, especially those who are located in South-eastern and Eastern Europe.
Pucher J, Dill J, Handy S. Infrastructure, programs, and policies to increase bicycling: An international review. Prev Med (Baltim) 2010;50:106-125.
Šimunović L, Brčić D, Sadić H. Choice of an optimal management strategy of transport demand using multi-criteria analysis: City of Zagreb case study. Int J TRAFFIC Transp Eng 2013;3:54-63.
Providelo JK, da Penha Sanches S. Roadway and traffic characteristics for bicycling. Transportation (Amst) 2011;38(5):765-777.
Brezina T, Ibesich N, Niegl M, Lemmerer H. Requirements for high quality cycling infrastructure design. In: Lakušić S, 2nd Int. Conf. Road Rail Infrastruct., Zagreb: Department of Transportation, Faculty of Civil Engineering; 2012. p. 953-959.
Ključarić M, Tepeš K, Pilko H. Program for development of bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb. In: Lakušić S, 2nd Int. Conf. Road Rail Infrastruct., Zagreb: Department of Transportation, Faculty of Civil Engineering; 2012. p. 899-905.
Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Statistical Yearbook of the Republic of Croatia [in Croatian]. Zagreb; 2013.
Zagreb Police Department. Road safety in the area of Zagreb Police Department [in Croatian]. Zagreb; 2013.
Cetl V, Tomić H, Lisjak J. The use of 3D model in the city management [in Croatian]. Zagreb: Faculty of Geodesy, University of Zagreb; 2013.
Study of the character landscape protection of the City of Zagreb [in Croatian]. Zagreb: Faculty of Agriculture, University of Zagreb, PRO SILVA Ltd, OIKON Ltd Institute for Applied Ecology; 2010.
Kelcec-Suhovec S. Green modes of transport and traffic safety – the Zagreb case. Proc. 9th ICTC, Zagreb; 1996. p. 1–5.
Matos S, Krapac L, Krapac J. Cycling in Zagreb. Acta Medica Croat 2007;61(1):27-31.
Bogović I. Cycling as recreation and transportation necessity. Promet-Traffic&Transportation 2001;13(5):349-354.
Halgota V. Social Aspects of City Traffic Planning: Public Bicycles as a Part of Zagreb’s Traffic Identity [in Croatian]. Diskrepancija. 2010;10:61-71.
MVA. Traffic Study of the City of Zagreb [in Croatian]. MVA; 1999.
ISIP-MG Ltd. Bicycle traffic – guidelines for planning and regulation [in Croatian]. Zagreb: ISIP-MG Ltd; 2011.
Engels D, Mrvelj Š, Cauwenberge B Van, Valkova J, Vilarinho C, Tavares P, et al. CIVITAS ELAN Final Evaluation Report, ELAN Deliverable No.10.11. Brussels: European Commission; 2012.
ISIP-MG Ltd. The program of regulation and planning of bicycle traffic in the City of Zagreb [in Croatian]. Zagreb: ISIP-MG Ltd; 2008.
Faculty of Geography, Institute of Social Sciences Ivo Pilar. Planning more human city: Students attitudes towards cycling and transport in Zagreb [in Croatian]; 2010.
http://www.nextbike.hr/hr/zagreb/ [accessed 2014 June 22]
Šimunović L, Ćosić M, Slavulj M. Student bicycle sharing system in Zagreb – Studocikl. In: Lakušić S, editor. 3¬rd Int. Conf. Road Rail Infrastruct., Zagreb: Department of Transportation, Faculty of Civil Engineering; 2014. p. 961-967.
Croatian Parliament. Law on Road Traffic Safety NN 80/13 [in Croatian]; 2013.
Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure. Ordinance on Traffic Signs, Signalization and Road Equipment NN 14/11 [in Croatian]; 2011.
Ministry of Construction and Physical Planning. Ordinance on Ensuring Accessibility of Buildings for Persons with Disabilities NN 78/13 [in Croatian]; 2013.
Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure. Ordinance on Basic Conditions to Which Public Roads Outside of Settlements Must Adhere from the Traffic Safety Aspect NN110/01 [in Croatian]; 2001.
Assembly of Zagreb. Decision on Traffic Regulation in the City of Zagreb SGGZ 23/03 [in Croatian]; 2003.
Assembly of Zagreb. Decision of Adopting the General Plan of Urban Zoning SGGZ 7/13 [in Croatian]; 2013.
Ministry of Maritime Affairs, Transport and Infrastructure. Ordinance on Technical Requirements for Vehicles in Road Traffic NN 51/10 [in Croatian]; 2010.
Deffner J, Ziel T, Hefter T, Rudolph CE. Handbook on cycling inclusive planning and promotion. Capacity development material for the multiplier training within the mobile2020 project. Frankfurt/Hamburg; 2012.
http://pedalafest.eu/ [accessed 2014 June 22]
http://www.epomm.eu/tems/ [accessed 2014 June 22]
Stanić B, Vujin D. New aesthetics of the city – design of cyclists traffic signs. Transport. 2005;20(6):257-264.
Robinson DL. Safety in numbers in Australia: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Health Promot J Austr. 2005;16:47-51.
Jacobsen P. Safety in numbers: more walkers and bicyclists, safer walking and bicycling. Inj Prev. 2003;9:205-209.
Statistik Austria. Road Traffic Accidents 2010 [in German]. Vienna: Statistik Austria; 2011.
Statistik Austria. Road Traffic Accidents 2011 [in German]. Vienna: Statistik Austria; 2012.
Lathia N, Ahmed S, Capra L. Measuring the impact of opening the London shared bicycle scheme to casual users. Transp Res Part C Emerg Technol. 2012;22:88-102.
Beecham R, Wood J. Exploring gendered cycling behaviours within a large-scale behavioural data-set. Transp Plan Technol. 2013;37(1):83-97.
Polacek M. Caution priority! The issue of priority regulation, legal and construction options for an understandable and reliable design of the primacy between bicycles and motor vehicles in the Austrian road transport [in German]. Inst of Transportation; 2014. p. 167.
Heinen E, van Wee B, Maat K. Commuting by Bicycle: An Overview of the Literature. Transp Rev. 2010;30:59-96.
Brezina T. A critical review on cycing in Ljubljana [in German]. A lot done – few happenes? Drahtesel. 2008;25:12-13.
Cerwenka P. Carrot and/or stick for transferring to public transport [in German]? Internationales Verkehrswesen. 1996;48:27-30.
Knoflacher H. Fundamentals of traffic and urban planning: Traffic Planning [in German]. Vienna: Böhlau Wien; 2007.
Frey H. Who plans the Planning? Contradictions in theory and practice [in German]. Proceedings Real CORP 2014; 2014 May 21-23; Vienna, Austria; 2014. p. 783-791.
Brezina T, Frey H. For Ethics in Planning [in German]. Zoll. 2013;22:24-27.
Šimunović L, Pilko H, Banožić M. Development of National Cycle Route Induced by EuroVelo Cycle Networks – Danube Cycle Route Case Study. Suvremeni promet. 2012;32:241-247.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).