Port Hinterland Modelling Based on Port Choice

  • Tomaž Kramberger Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor
  • Bojan Rupnik Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor
  • Gregor Štrubelj Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor
  • Klemen Prah
Keywords: port hinterland modelling, captive hinterland, contestable hinterland, MILP, GIS, objective and subjective factors,


This paper presents a new approach for hinterland modelling based on the results of port choice modelling. The paper follows the idea that the shippers’ port choice is a trade-off between various objective and subjective factors. The presented model tackles the problem by applying the AHP method in order to obtain ports’ preference rates based on subjective factors, and combine them with objective factors, which include port operation costs, sailing times, and land transport costs using MILP. The ports’ hinterlands are modelled by finding the optimal port of choice for different locations across Europe and merging the identical results. The model can be used in order to produce captive hinterland of ports and can also be exploited in order to analyse how changes in the traffic infrastructure influence the size of hinterlands.

Author Biographies

Tomaž Kramberger, Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor
Tomaž Kramberger is an assistant professor and vice dean for research activities at the Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor. He received his PhD in Computer Science at the Faculty of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, University of Maribor. His main research areas include transportation, operational research, and optimization methods.
Bojan Rupnik, Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor
Bojan Rupnik is a teaching assistant at Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor. He completed his BSc in Computer Science in 2006 at the Faculty of Electrical engineering and Computer Science Maribor in 2006. His research interests include Computer Science, Scientific Visualization, Computational Geometry and GIS.
Gregor Štrubelj, Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor
Gregor Å trubelj graduated from Faculty of Computer and Information Science,
University of Ljubljana. He works as a teaching assistant in Faculty of
Logistics, University of Maribor. His research focuses on algorithm
development in the field of geographic information systems.
Klemen Prah
Klemen Prah is employed as assistan professor on the Faculty of Logistics, University of Maribor. In year 2009 he finished his doctoral study in geography. His main topic of research is: transportation networks and geographic
information systems (GIS).


Ferrari C, Parola F, Gattorna E. Measuring the quality of port hinterland accessibility: The Ligurian case. Transport Policy. 2011;18:382-391.

Notteboom TP, Rodrigue JP. Re-Assessing Port-Hinterland Relationships in the Context of Global Commodity Chains. In: Wang JJ et al., editors. Ports, cities, and global supply chains. London: Ashgate; 2007. p. 51-66.

Haralambides HE. Competition, Excess Capacity and the Pricing of Port Infrastructure. International Journal of Maritime Economics. 2002;4:323-347.

Garcia-Alonso L, Sanchez-Soriano J. Port selection from a hinterland perspective. Maritime Economics and logistics. 2009;11(3):260-269.

Sys C, Vanelslander T. Port Hinterland Competitiveness: Analysis of a Road Expansion Project, applied to the Port of Zeebruges. In Proceedings of IAME 2013 Conference; 2013 July 3-5; Marseille, France.

Van den Berg R, De Langen P. Hinterland strategies of port authorities: A case study of the port of Barcelona. Research in Transportation Economics. 2011;33:6-14.

Debrie J, Guerrero D. (Re)spatialize port issue: for a geographical reading of European hinterlands [in French]. L’Espace géographique. 2008;37(1):45-56.

Olivier D, Slack B. Rethinking the port. Environment and Planning A. 2006;38(8):1409-1427.

Sargent AJ. Seaports and Hinterlands. London: Adam and Charles Black; 1938.

Woo SH, Pettit JS, Kwak DK, Beresford AKC. Seaport research: A structured literature review on methodological Seaport research: A structured literature review on methodological issues since the 1980s. Transportation Research Part A. 2011;45:667-685.

Dahlberg MD, May JH. Linear programming for sitting of energy facilities. Journal of Energy Engineering, 1980; p. 5-14.

Spohrer GA, Kmak TR. Qualitative analysis used in evaluating alternative plant location scenarios. Industrial Engineering, 1984; p. 52-56.

Chou CC. A fuzzy MCDM method for solving marine transshipment container port selection problem. Applied Mathematics and Computation. 2007;(186):435-444.

Kramberger T, Chin A. Port choice: does port efficiency and operating cost matter? In: International Association of Maritime Economists Conference; 2013 July; Marseille, France.

Tongzon JL. Port choice and freight forwarders. Transportation Research Part E. 2009;45:186-195.

Chou CC. AHP model for the container port. Journal of Marine Science and Technology. 2010;18(2):221-232.

SeaRates.com. [Online]. [cited 2015]. Available from: http://www.searates.com/reference/portdistance/.

Trötscher T. Linear Mixed Integer Program Solver [homepage on the Internet]. 2009 [updated 2009 Sep 11]. Available from: http://www.mathworks.com/matlabcentral/fileexchange/25259-linear-mixed-integer-program-solver

HamburgPort. Annual report 2012; 2012.

Gaffron P, Benecke J, Flamig H. Hinterland traffic of the port of Hamburg keeping the gateway open. Association for European Transport: 2007.

Bremenports. http://www.bremenports.de/. [online]. 2012. Available from: http://www.bremenports.de/en/location/statistics/port-facts-and-figures.

Port of Rotterdam. www.portofrotterdam.com. [online]. 2011. Available from: http://www.portofrotterdam.com/en/Port-authority/finance/annual-report/Pages/default.aspx.

Luka Rijeka. http://www.lukarijeka.hr/. [online]. 2012. Available from: http://www.lukarijeka.hr/hr/port_handbook/prometna_povezanost/default.aspx.

Luka Koper. http://www.luka-kp.si/. [online]. 2012 [cited 2013. Available from: http://www.luka-kp.si/eng/investors/annual-reports.

Trieste Port Authority. http://www.porto.trieste.it/eng/port/terminal-operators. [online]. 2012. Available from: http://www.porto.trieste.it/app/webroot/promotional_kit_eng.pdf.

Van Klink HA, Van den Berg GC. Gateways and intermodalism. Journal of Transportation Geography. 1998;6(1):1-9.

Kronbak J, Cullinane K. Captive and contestable port hinterlands: modelling and visualization using GIS. In: Cullinane K. International handbook of Maritime Economics; 2011. p. 348-361.

Kontelj M, Jakomin I. Transport Modelling of Freight Flows in Accordance with Investments: Case Study of Slovenian Railways. Promet-Traffic & Transportation. 2014;26(5):429-436.

How to Cite
Kramberger T, Rupnik B, Štrubelj G, Prah K. Port Hinterland Modelling Based on Port Choice. Promet [Internet]. 2015Jun.26 [cited 2023Feb.5];27(3):195-03. Available from: https://traffic.fpz.hr/index.php/PROMTT/article/view/1611