Strategic Approach Model for Investigating the Cause of Maritime Accidents

  • Ünal ÖZDEMİR Karadeniz Technical University
  • Abdulaziz GÜNEROĞLU Karadeniz Technical University
Keywords: maritime accident, multiple criteria decision-making, decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory, analytical network process,


It is commonly accepted that the majority of maritime causalities are caused by human factors/errors. The role of human factor in maritime accident and the possible reasons of this argument can be quantitatively evaluated based on expert knowledge and multiple criteria decision-making (MCDM) methodology. To investigate what makes the first “human factor” in ship accidents, a hybrid approach was applied in this study. Two methods, the decision-making trial and evaluation laboratory (DEMATEL) and the analytical network process (ANP) were proposed to evaluate the importance level of the human factors in maritime casualties. Quantitative evaluations of the human errors in maritime operations can greatly improve the decision-making process and reduce potential risks. As a result of this study, the top three priorities in the evaluation systems were found as: ‘ability, skills, knowledge’ (8.94%), ‘physical condition’ (8.77%), ‘weather - sea conditions’ (8.21%) and the least important criterion was ‘cargo characteristics’ (2.21%).

Author Biographiesaaa replica rolex repwatches replica rolex watches for men replica iwc watch

Ünal ÖZDEMİR, Karadeniz Technical University

Karadeniz Technical University, Sürmene Faculty of Marine Science, Department of Maritime Transportation and Management Engineering,

Research Assistant

Abdulaziz GÜNEROĞLU, Karadeniz Technical University

Karadeniz Technical University, Sürmene Faculty of Marine Science, Department of Fisheries Technology Engineering,

Associate Professor


Marine Accident Investigation Branch. Marine Accident Investigation Annual Report 2011. Southampton: Mountbatten House Grosvenor Square Press; 2013.

Lützhöft M, Grech MR, Porathe T. Information Environment, Fatigue and Culture in the Maritime Domain. Reviews of Human Factors and Ergonomics. 2011;(7):280-286.

O’Hare D. The “wheel of misfortune”: a taxonomic approach to human factors in accident investigation and analysis in aviation and other complex systems. Ergonomics. 2000;43(12):2001–2019.

Tzannatos E. Human element and accidents in Greek shipping. Journal of Navigation. 2010;63(1):119-127.

Faturachman D, Mustafa S. Sea Transportation Accident Analysis in Indonesia. The 2012 International Conference on Asia Pacific Business Innovation and Technology Management; 2012 Jan 13-15; Pattaya, Thailand. p. 238-243.

Antao P, Soares G. Fault-tree models of accident of Scenarios of RoPax Vessels. International Journal of Automation and Computing. 2006;(2):107-116.

European Transport Safety Council. Transport accident and incident investigation in the European Union. Brussels: European Transport Safety Council; 2001.

Tzannatos E, Kokotos D. Analysis of accidents in Greek shipping during the pre- and post-ISM period. Marine Policy. 2009;33(4):679-684.

Arslan Ö, Er, İD. Effects of Fatigue on Navigation Officers and SWOT Analyze for Reducing Fatigue Related Human Errors on Board. International Journal on Marine Navigation and Safety of Sea Transportation. 2007;1(3):345-352.

Wagenaar WA, Groeneweg J. Accidents at sea: Multiple causes and impossible Consequences. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies. 1987;27(5):587-598.

Rothblum AR. Human Error and Marine Safety, Paper presented at: National Safety Council Congress and Expo; 2000 Oct 13-20; Orlando, Florida.

Anderson P. Cracking the code: The relevance of the ISM code and its impact on shipping practices. London: Nautical Institute; 2003.

Darbra RM, Casal J. Historical analysis of accidents in seaports. Safety Science. 2004;42(3):85-98.

Toffoli A, Lefevre JM. Bitner-Gregersen, E. and Monbaliu, J. Towards the identification of warning criteria: analysis of a ship accident database. Applied Ocean Research. 2005;27(6):281-291.

Hetherington C, Flin R, Mearns K. Safety in shipping: the human element. Journal of Safety Research. 2006;37(4):401-411.

McCafferty DB, Baker C. Trending The Causes Of Marine Incidents. Presented at: Learning from Marine Incidents III Conference; 2006 Jan 25-26; London, England.

Celik M, Cebi S. Analytical HFACS for investigating human errors in shipping accidents. Accident Analysis and Prevention. 2009;41: 66-75.

Pazara HR, Barsan E, Arsenie P, Chiotoroiu L, Raicu G. Reducing of Maritime Accidents Caused By Human Factors Using Simulators In Training Process. Journal of Maritime Research. 2008;5(1):3-18.

Soares GC, Teixeira AP. Risk Assessment in Maritime Transportation. Reliability Engineering and System Safety. 2001;74(2):299-309.

Liou JJH, Tzeng GH, Chang HC. Airline safety measurement using a hybrid model. Air Transport Management. 2007;13(4):243-249.

Tseng LM. Application of ANP and DEMATEL to evaluate the decision-making of municipal solid waste management in Metro Manila. Environ Monit Assess. 2009;156(3):181-197.

Yang YPO, Shieh HM, Leu JD, Tzeng GH. A Novel Hybrid MCDM Model Combined with DEMATEL and ANP with Applications. International Journal of Operations Research. 2008;5(3):160-168.

Chen C,Yu H. Using a Strategies Approach to Analysis the Location Selection for High-Tech Firms in Taiwan. Management Research News. 2008;31(4):228-244.

Chiu YJ, Chen HC, Tzeng GH, Shyu JZ. Marketing strategy based on customer behavior for the LCD-TV. International Journal of Management and Decision Making. 2006;7(3):143-165.

Wu WW, Lee YT. Developing global managers’ competencies using the fuzzy DEMATEL Method. Expert Systems with Applications. 2011;32(2):499-507.

Meade LM, Presley A. R&D project selection using the analytic network process. IEEE transactions on engineering management. 2002;49(1):59-66.

Huang JJ, Tzeng GH, Ong CS. Multidimensional data in multidimensional scaling using the analytic network process. Pattern Recognition Letters. 2005;26(3):755-767.

Reason J. Human error: models and management. Education and Debate, BMJ Journal. 2000;320:760-770.

Wiegmann DA, Shapell SA. Human error analysis of commercial aviation accidents: application of the human factors analysis and classification system. Aviation Space and Environmental Medicine. 2001;72(11):1006-1016.

Rasmussen J. Risk management in a dynamic society: a modeling problem. Safety Science. 1997;27(2/3):183-213.

Leveson N. A new accident model for engineering safer systems. Safety Science. 2004;42:237-270.

Lee JW, Kim SH. Using analytic network process and goal programming for interdependent information system project selection. Computers & Operations Research. 2000;27(4):367-382.

Tzeng GH, Chiang CH, Li CW. Evaluating intertwined effects in e-learning programs: a hybrid MCDM model based on factor analysis and DEMATEL. Expert Systems with Applications. 2007;32(4):1028-1044.

Shen YC, Grace TRL, Tzeng GH. A novel multi-criteria decision-making combining Decision Making Trial and Evaluation Laboratory technique for technology evaluation. Foresight. 2012;14(2):139-153.

Saaty TL. The analytic network process-decision making with dependence and feedback. Pittsburgh, PA- RWS;1996.

Hsu WC, Hu HA. Applying hazardous substance management to supplier selection using analytic network process. Journal of Cleaner Production. 2009;17:255-264.

Sarkis J, Sundarraj RP. Hub location at digital equipment corporation: a comprehensive analysis of qualitative and quantitative factors. European Journal of Operational Research. 2002;137:336-47.

Portela C. Maritime Casualties Analysis As A Tool To Improve Research About Human Factors On Maritime Environment. Journal of Maritime Research. 2005;2(2):3-18.

Harrald JR, Mazzuchi TA, Spahn J, Van Dorp P, Merrick J , Shresta S, Grabowski M. Using system simulation to model the impact of human error in a maritime system. Safety Science. 1998;30:235-247.

Gordon R, Flin R, Mearns K. Designing and evaluating a human factors investigation tool (HFIT) for accident analysis. Safety Science. 2005;43:147-171.

How to Cite
ÖZDEMİR Ünal, GÜNEROĞLU A. Strategic Approach Model for Investigating the Cause of Maritime Accidents. Promet [Internet]. 2015Apr.13 [cited 2024Apr.14];27(2):113-2. Available from: