Safety Evaluation of Highway Tunnel-Entrance Illuminance Transition Based on Eye-Pupil Changes
Utilizing the EMR-8B eye-tracker system, the pupil changes of eight drivers were monitored when they drove through 26 typical highway tunnels. Based on the test results, the driver’s pupil areas and pupil illuminance were found to be in a power function relationship at tunnel entrances. Furthermore, a quantitative relationship between the pupil area and its critical velocity was established, and the ratio of pupil area’s velocity in relation to its critical velocity was used to evaluate the lighting transitions and to establish the ideal curve of pupil illuminance at tunnel entrances. The results demonstrated that the relationship between the pupil illuminance of the tunnel entrance and the driver’s pupil areas conforms to the Stevens law found in experimental psychology; severe pupil illuminance transition within the range of 10 metres of the existing highway tunnel entrances, which results in great visual load, is in urgent need of improvement.
Wang BX. Analysis of the characteristics of tunnel traffic accidents on Expressway. Traffic and Transportation. 2012;12(1):22-27.
Dai YH, An CJ, Liao ZG, et al. Traffic safety features of expressway tunnel section. High Traffic Information and Safety. 2010;28(2):101-105.
Pachamanov A, Pachamanova D. Optimization of the light distribution of luminaries for tunnel and street lighting. Engineering Optimization. 2008;40(1):47-65.
Kircher K, Ahlstrom C. The impact of tunnel design and lighting on the performance of attentive and visually distracted drivers. Accident Analysis & Prevention. 2012;47:153-161.
Yang Z, Guo ZY. Research on Speed Alteration at Entrance and Exit of Tunnel. Shanghai Highway. 2006;(1):48-51.
Dai YH, Guo ZY. Effect of Spatial Visual Pattern on Driving Behaviour in Expressway Tunnel Section. Journal of Tongji University (Natural Science). 2011;39(9):1307-1312.
Shi LD, Liu HX, Zhao WH. The Influence of Lighting Zone on Vision Information Capturing for Extra-long Tunnel. Highway. 2011;(6):213-218.
Macdonald JSP, Lavie N. Visual perceptual load induces inattentional deafness. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics. 2011;73(6):1780-1789.
Purves D. Neuroscience. 4th ed. Sinauer Associates; 2008.
Kramer AF. Physiological metrics of mental workload: A review of recent progress. Multiple-task performance. 1991:279-328.
Kun AL, Palinko O, Razumenić I. Exploring the effects of size and luminance of visual targets on the pupillary light reflex. Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Automotive User Interfaces and Interactive Vehicular Applications. ACM. 2012:183-186.
Palinko O, Kun AL. Exploring the effects of visual cognitive load and illumination on pupil diameter in driving simulators. Proceedings of the Symposium on Eye Tracking Research and Applications. ACM. 2012:413-416.
Cheng ACK, Rao SK, Cheng LL, et al. Assessment of pupil size under different light intensities using the Procyon pupillometer. Journal of Cataract & Refractive Surgery. 2006;32(6):1015-1017.
Ying-kuia HU, Jib W, Yib LI, et al. The change rule of driver’s pupil size under road lighting conditions. Journal of Chongqing University. 2010;8:018.
Tomoki F, Kadoma T, Iwasaki M. Eye movement and driving behavior in curved section passages of urban motorway [CD-ROM]. TRB Annual Meeting; 2005.
Du ZG, Jie L, Pan XD. Driver’s minimum fixation duration’s ascertain and application in freeway tunnels. Journal of Highway and Transportation Research and Development. 2010;26(9):118-120.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).