Identification and Prioritization of Hazardous Road Locations by Segmentation and Data Envelopment Analysis Approach

  • Aliasghar Sadeghi
  • Esmaeel Ayati
  • Mohammadali Pirayesh Neghab
Keywords: data envelopment analysis, segmentation, hazardous road section, prioritization, crash


The aim of the present study is the representation of a method to identify and prioritize accident-prone sections (APSs) based upon efficiency concept to emphasize accidents with regard to traffic, geometric and environmental circumstances of road which can consider the interaction of accidents as well as their casual factors. This study incorporates the segmentation procedure into data envelopment analysis (DEA) technique which has no requirement of distribution function and special assumptions, unlike the regression models. A case study has been done on 144.4km length of Iran roads to describe the approach. Eleven accident-prone sections were identified among 154 sections obtained from the segmentation process and their prioritization was made based on the inefficiency values coming from DEA method. The comparisons demonstrated that the frequency and severity of accidents would not be only considered as the main factors for black-spots identification but proper rating can be possible by obtaining inefficiency values from this method for the road sections. This approach could applicably offer decision-making units for identifying accident-prone sections and their prioritizations. Also, it can be used to prioritize intersections, roundabouts or the total roads of the safety organization domain.


Legal medicine organization, (2011). Available at: Accessed January 2011

Montella, A.: “A comparative analysis of hotspot identification methods”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 42, No. 2, pp. 571-581, 2010

Geurts, K., Wets, G.: Black spot analysis methods: Literature review, Report number: RA2003- 07, Diepenbeek, Belgium. Flemish Research Center for Traffic Safety, 2003

Elvik, R.: State-of-the-art approaches to road accident black spot management and safety analysis of road networks, Document No. 883, Institute of Transport Economics, Oslo, 2007

Hauer, E., Kononov, J., Allery, B. and Griffith, M.S.: “Screening the Road Network for Sites with Promise”. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1784, pp. 27-32, 2002

Montella, A.: “Safety reviews of existing roads: quantitative safety assessment methodology“. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1922, pp. 62-72, 2005

Cheng, W. and Washington, S.P.: “Experimental evaluation of hotspot identification methods”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 37, No. 5, pp. 870-881, 2005

Heydecker, B.G. and Wu, J.: “Identification of sites for road accident remedial work by Bayesian statistical methods: an example of uncertain inference”. Advances in Engineering Software, Vol. 32, No. 10-11, pp. 859-869, 2001

Miaou, S.-P. and Song, J.J.: “Bayesian ranking of sites for engineering safety improvements: Decision parameter, treatability concept, statistical criterion, and spatial dependence”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 37, No. 4, pp. 699-720, 2005

Miranda-Moreno, L.F., Fu, L., Saccomanno, F.F. and Labbe, A.: “Alternative risk models for ranking locations for safety improvement“. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1908, pp. 1-8, 2005

Persaud, B., Lyon, C., Nguyen, T.: “Empirical bayes procedure for ranking sites for safety investigation by potential for safety improvement”. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1665 pp. 7-12, 1999

Tunaru, R.: “Hierarchical Bayesian models for multiple count data”. Austrian Journal of statistics, Vol. 31, No. 2 & 3, pp. 221–229, 2002

Hauer, E., Persaud, B.N.: “Problem of identifying hazardous locations using accident data”. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 975, pp. 36–43, 1984

Flak, M.A. and Barbaresso, J.C.: “Use of computerized roadway information system in safety analyses”. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 844, pp. 50–55, 1982

Sayed, T., Abdelwahab, W. and Navin, F.: “Identifying accident-prone locations using fuzzy pattern recognition”. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 121, No. 4, pp. 352-358, 1995

Hauer, E., Allery, B.K., Kononov, J. and Griffith, M.S.: “How best to rank sites with promise”. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1897, pp. 48-54, 2004

Geurts, K., Wets, G., Brijs, T. and Vanhoof, K.: “Identification and Ranking of Black Spots: Sensitivity Analysis“. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1897, pp. 34-42, 2004

Elvik, R.: “A survey of operational definitions of hazardous road locations in some European countries”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 40, No. 6, pp. 1830-1835, 2008

Charnes, A., Cooper, W.W. and Rhodes, E.: “Measuring the efficiency of decision making units”. European Journal of Operational Research, Vol. 2, No. 6, pp. 429-444, 1978

Farrell, M.J.: “The measurement of productive efficiency”. Royal Statistical Society, Vol. Series A General120, No. 3, pp. 253–281, 1957

Mehregan, M.R.: Quantitative Models in Organizations Performances, second edition, Management Faculty of University of Tehran Pub., Tehran, 2008

Mohebalizadeh, H. and Faez, F.: “Multiple objective approach for suppliers evaluation by multiple criteria data envelopment analysis”. Indestreis Engineering Technical, Vol. 43, No. 1, pp. 67-82, 2009

Sowlati, T., Paradi, J.C. and Suld, C.: “Information systems project prioritization using data envelopment analysis”. Mathematical and Computer Modelling, Vol. 41, No. 11-12, pp. 1279-1298, 2005

Jahanshahloo, G.R., Hosseinzadeh Lotfi, F., Khanmohammadi, M., Kazemimanesh M., and Rezaie, V.: “Ranking of units by positive ideal DMU with common weights”. Expert Systems with Applications, Vol. 37, No. 12, pp. 7483-7488, 2010

Andersen, P. and Petersen, N.C.: “A procedure for ranking efficient units in data envelopment analysis”. Management Science, Vol. 39, No. 10, pp. 1261-1264, 1993

Abdel-Aty, M.A. and Radwan, A.E.: “Modeling traffic accident occurrence and involvement”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 32, No. 5, pp. 633-642, 2000

Cafiso, S., La Cava, G., Montella, A. and Pappalardo, G.: “A Procedure to improve safety inspections effectiveness and reliability on rural two–lane highways”. The Baltic Journal of Road and Bridge Engineering, Vol. 1, No. 3, pp. 143-150, 2006

Cafiso, S., Di Graziano, A., Di Silvestro, G., and La Cava, G.: “Safety performance indicators for local rural roads: a comprehensive procedure from low-cost data survey to accident prediction model”, TRB 87th Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers. National Research Council, Washington, DC, 2008

Cafiso, S., Di Graziano, A., Di Silvestro, G., La Cava, G. and Persaud, B.: “Development of comprehensive accident models for two-lane rural highways using exposure, geometry, consistency and context variables”. Accident Analysis & Prevention, Vol. 42, No. 4, pp. 1072-1079, 2010

Pardillo, J.M. and Llamas, R.: “Relevant variables for crash rate prediction in Spain’s two lane rural roads”, TRB 82nd Annual Meeting Compendium of Papers, CD-ROM, TRB. National Research Council, Washington, DC, 2003

Vogt, A. and Bared, J.: “Accident Models for Two-Lane Rural Segments and Intersections”. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1635, pp. 18-29, 1998

Zhang, C. and Ivan, J.N.: “Effects of Geometric Characteristics on Head-On Crash Incidence on Two-Lane Roads in Connecticut“. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1908, pp. 159-164, 2005

Anderson, I.B., Bauer, K.M., Harwood, D.W., Fitzpatrick, K.: “Relationship to safety of geometric design consistency measures for rural two-lane highways“. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1658, pp. 43-51, 1999

Hassan, Y., Sayed, T. and Tabernero, V.: “Establishing Practical Approach for Design Consistency Evaluation”. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 127, No. 4, pp. 295-302, 2001

Lamm, R., Choueiri, E.M. and Mailaender, T.: “Side friction demand versus side friction assumed for curvedesign on two-lane rural highways”. Transportation Research Record, Vol. 1303, pp. 11-21, 1991

Nicholson, A.: “Superelevation, side friction, and roadway consistency”. Journal of Transportation Engineering, Vol. 124, No. 5, pp. 411-418, 1998

Federal Highway Administration, Alternative design consistency rating methods for two-lane rural highways, Federal Highway Administration, US Department of Transportation, 2000

Huang, Y.H.: Pavement analysis and design, Second Edition, Pearson Prentice Hall, USA, 2004

AASHTO, Roadside Design Guide, Second edition, American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials, 2 Ed., Washington, DC, 1996

Ayati, E.: Rural Traffic Accidents in Iran (Analysis, comarison and the Cost). Ferdowsi University Press, Iran, Mashhad, 1992

Samuel, C., Keren, N., Shelley, M.C. and Freeman, S.A.: “Frequency analysis of hazardous material transportation incidents as a function of distance from origin to incident location”. Journal of Loss Prevention in the Process Industries, Vol. 22, No. 6, pp. 783-790, 2009

Statistical Center of Iran, Available at: Accessed January 2011, 2006

Geurts, K., Wets, G., Brijs, T., Vanhoof, K. and Karlis, D.: “Ranking and selecting dangerous crash locations: Correcting for the number of passengers and Bayesian ranking plots”. Journal of Safety Research, Vol. 37, No. 1, pp. 83-91, 2006

Yazdani, H.: Investigating the Identification and Prioritization Methods of Black spots and their Applications, Civil Engineering, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad, 2010

How to Cite
Sadeghi A, Ayati E, Pirayesh Neghab M. Identification and Prioritization of Hazardous Road Locations by Segmentation and Data Envelopment Analysis Approach. Promet [Internet]. 1 [cited 2023Feb.5];25(2):127-36. Available from: