Criteria Considerations for Establishment of Hems Operations

  • Borivoj Galović
  • Željko Marušić
  • Omer Pita
Keywords: Emergency Medical Service (EMS), Helicopter Emergency Medical Service (HEMS), Mobile Medical Team (MMT), Air ambulance, Search and Rescue (SAR)


The importance of the 'golden hour'; for optimal efficiencyof helicopter operations in emergency medical service (HEMS)to meet the 'golden hour' requirement the unconditional requirementis to establish a net of operational units to cover theentire area of the Republic of Croatia, capable to operate withinwide integrated area (international services). It is additionalback-up, not a competition to road and sea EMS vehicles. Therequired standards; HEMS operation, following complementarytraffic policy, i. e. complementary policy in line of trafficsystem integration within wider region, with reference to standards,must entirely comply with globally accepted standards.Republic of Croatia 's obvious objectives are traffic integrationinto EU (European Union) traffic system. Cost analyses; It isstressed that coherent traffic policy can by certain instrumentsreduce traffic assigned external cost in national budget. Significanttraffic external cost includes cost of traffic accidents, environmentimpacts and traffic jams, and could be reduced byestablishmentof multi-purpose helicopter operations. SWOTanalyses should be made as for any other strategy or project.Technical-technological criteria and other considerations;Considering technical-technological criteria for relief of criticalsituations in traffic, it is obvious that one helicopter type cannotcomply to all multi-purpose requirements that traffic sets beforeus - EMS on open roads, sea, mountains and urban trafficcongested area, and search and rescue operations. However,common factor for all types is compliance to global standardsand regulations. In the paper, some examples of HEMS operationsin the EU States are mentioned.


Andrija Vidovic: «Primjena helikoptera u hitnoj medicinskoj

pomoći u Republici Hrvatskoj», Scientific Master

Thesis, Faculty of Traffic and Transport Engineering,

Zagreb, Feb. 2006.


How to Cite
Galović B, Marušić Željko, Pita O. Criteria Considerations for Establishment of Hems Operations. Promet [Internet]. 1 [cited 2024Jun.12];19(3):181-6. Available from:
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