Accessibility of Universal Postal Service According to Access Points Density Criteria: Case Study of Bjelovar-Bilogora County, Croatia
Universal service providers have an obligation to provide a minimum required set of postal services – known as universal service obligation. To ensure universal service obligation, regulatory measures (criteria) which service providers must fulfil are often set up. In this paper, a geographical analysis of these criteria is conducted using current regulatory framework in the Republic of Croatia as an example. Based on the framework of the gravity model, accessibility of postal service is presented. The goal of the proposed research is to investigate the application of the gravity model for determining postal service accessibility, with special emphasis on rural areas. To our knowledge, this method has not been used in previous studies to determine accessibility of postal services. The results of the applied model could be used in future planning of access density criteria with various transportation modes.
 CERP. Implementation Guide, Universal Service. CERP PL 2009/2 Doc 13 Rev.1, 2009.
 International Post Corporation (IPC). Postal Regulatory Database. Country Directory. Brussels, Belgium, 2014.
 European Regulators Group for Postal Services. Report on the quality of service, consumer protection and complaint handling – an analysis of trends. ERGP (16) 37, December 2016.
 Republic of Croatia. [Law on Postal Services]. Official Gazette. 2013, 144/12, 153/13, 78/15. Croatian.
 Croatian Regulatory Authority for Network Industries. [Ordinance on the Provision of Universal Service]. Official Gazette, 2013, 41/13. Croatian.
 Faculty of Transport and Traffic Sciences, Deloitte. [Strategy of postal service market development in the Republic of Croatia by the 2020]. Ministry of the Sea, Transport and Infrastructure, 2014. Croatian.
 Microsoft. Digital Opportunities for the Postal Industry. A Microsoft White Paper, 2007.
 NERA Economic Consulting: Access to Postal Services, A final report for Postcomm, 2007.
 Langford M, Higgs G. Accessibility and Public Service Provision: Evaluating the Impacts of the Post Office Network Change Programme in the UK. Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers. 2010;35(4): 585-601. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1475-5661.2010.00394.x [Accessed 13 September 2017].
 Accenture. International Postal Liberalization – Comparative Study of US and Key Countries; 2008.
 RAND Europe. Study on Appropriate Methodologies to Better Measure Consumer Preference for Postal Services. Final report, 2011.
 Boston Consulting Group. Focus on the Future, Building a new Compelling Position for the Post, International Post Corporation, 2012.
 Madlenak R, Madlenakova L, Štefunko J. The Variant Approach to the Optimization of the Postal Transportation Network in the Conditions of the Slovak Republic. Transport and Telecommunications. 2015;16(3): 237-245. Available from: doi:10.1515/ttj-2015-0022 [Accessed 15 June 2017].
 Šarac D, Kopić M, Mostarac K, Kujačić M. Jovanović B. Application of Set Covering Location Problem for Organizing the Public Postal Network. Promet – Traffic & Transportation. 2016;28(4): 403-413. Available from: doi:10.7307/ptt.v28i4.1962 [Accessed 20 January 2017].
 Blagojević M, Šelmić M, Macura D, Šarac D. Determining the Number of Postal Units in the Network – Fuzzy Approach, Serbia Case Study. Expert Systems with Applications. 2013;40(10): 4090-4095. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2013.01.038 [Accessed 20 January 2017].
 Šarac D, Kujačić M, Dumnić S. Determination Number of Nodes in the Postal Logistics Network of Public Postal Operator. In: Proceedings of 1st Logistics International Conference, 28 – 30 November 2013, Belgrade, Serbia; p. 20-25.
 Trubint N. A GIS Application to Explore Postal Retail Outlet Locations. Promet – Traffic & Transportation. 2012;24(2): 161-168. Available from: doi:10.7307/ptt.v24i2.288 [Accessed 20 January 2017].
 Higgs G, Langford M. Investigating the Validity of Rural-Urban Distinctions in the Impacts of Changing Service Provision: The Example of Postal Service Reconfiguration in Wales. Geoforum. 2013;47: 53–64. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.geoforum.2013.02.011 [Accessed 16 October 2017].
 Jablonsky J, Lauber J. A Time – Cost Optimization of the National Postal Distribution Network. Journal of Multi– Criteria Decision Analysis. 1999;8: 51-56. Available from: doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1360(199901)8:1<51::AID-MCDA229>3.0.CO;2-B [Accessed 14 September 2016].
 Lisec A, Rihter A. Logistical Operation in Postal Logistics Centres. Logistics and Sustainable Transport. 2007;1(2): 1-12.
 Kujačić M, Nikoličić S, Jovanović B, Mirčetić D. Logistical Performance in Postal Logistics Centres. In: Proceedings of 1st Logistics International Conference, 28-30 November 2013, Belgrade, Serbia; p. 209-214.
 Mirčetić D, Nikoličić S, Maslarić M, Stanojević M. Simulation as a Tool for Extracting Key Performance Parameters in Postal Logistics Centres. In: Proceedings of 2nd Logistics International Conference, 21-23 May 2015, Belgrade, Serbia; p. 210-215.
 Lee J-H, Moon I. A Hybrid Hub-and-Spoke Postal Logistics Network with Realistic Restrictions: A Case Study of Korea Post. Expert Systems with Applications. 2014;41(11): 5509-5519. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.eswa.2014.02.027 [Accessed 9 January 2018].
 Šarac D, et al. Postal Network Access and Service Quality: Expectation and experience in Serbia. Utilities Policy. 2017;48: 69-75, Available from: doi:10.1016/j.jup.2017.09.004 [Accessed 20 May 2018].
 Geurs KT, Wee B. Accessibility Evaluation of Land-Use and Transport Strategies: Review and Research Direction. Journal of Transport Geography. 2004;12: 127-140. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2003.10.005 [Accessed 17 January 2018].
 Levinson David M, Krizek KJ. Access to Destinations. 1st ed. United Kingdom: Elsevier Science; 2005.
 Ford AC, Barr SL, Dawson RJ, James P. Transport Accessibility Analysis Using GIS: Assessing Sustainable Transport in London. International Journal of Geo-Information. 2015;4(1): 124-149. Available from: doi:10.3390/ijgi4010124 [Accessed 16 September 2017].
 Luo W. Using GIS-based Floating Catchment Method to Assess Areas with Shortage of Physicians. Health and Place. 2004;10: 1-11. Available from: doi:10.1016/S1353-8292(02)00067-9 [Accessed 15 May 2017].
 Fortney J, Rost K, Warren J. Comparing Alternative Methods of Measuring Geographic Access to Health Services. Health Services and Outcomes Research Methodology. 2000;1(2): 173-184.
 Guagliardo MF. Spatial Accessibility of Primary Care: Concepts, Methods and Challenges. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2004;3(3). Available from: doi:10.1186/1476-072X-3-3 [Accessed 13 March 2017].
 Wang L. Analysing Spatial Accessibility to Health Care: A Case Study of Access by Different Immigrant Groups to Primary Care Physicians in Toronto. Annals of GIS. 2011;17(4): 237-251.
 Cheng Y, Wang JE, Rosenberg MW. Spatial Access to Residential Care Resources in Beijing, China. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2012;11(32). Available from: doi:https://doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-11-32 [Accessed 15 June 2017].
 Ye H, Kim H. Measuring Spatial Health Care Disparity Using a Network-based Accessibility Index Method in a GIS Environment: A case study of Hillsborough County, Florida. International Journal of Geospatial and Environmental Research. 2014;1(1): 1-21.
 Cai E, Liu Y, Jing Y, Zhang L, Li J, Yin C. Assessing Spatial Accessibility of Public and Private Residential Aged Care Facilities: A case Study in Wuhan, Central China. International Journal of Geo-Information. 2017;6(304). Available from: doi:10.3390/ijgi6100304 [Accessed 17 January 2018].
 Zhang X, Lu H, Holt JB. Modelling Spatial Accessibility to Parks: A National Study. International Journal of Health Geographics. 2001;10(31). Available from: doi:10.1186/1476-072X-10-31 [Accessed 20 November 2016].
 Comber A, Brundson C, Green E. Using a GIS-based network analysis to determine urban greenspace accessibility for different ethnic and religious groups. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2008;86: 102-114. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2008.01.002 [Accessed 8 January 2017].
 Dai D. Racial/Ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Urban Green Space Accessibility: Where to Intervene? Landscape and Urban Planning. 2011;102: 234-244. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2011.05.002 [Accessed 16 November 2017].
 Lee G, Hong I. Measuring Spatial Accessibility in the Context of Spatial Disparity Between Demand and Supply of Urban Park Service. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2013;119: 85-90. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2013.07.001 [Accessed 16 March 2018].
 Langford M, Fry R, Higgs G. Measuring Transit System Accessibility Using a Modified Two-step Floating Catchment Technique. International Journal of Geographical Information Science. 2012;26(2): 193-214. Available from: doi:10.1080/13658816.2011.574140 [Accessed 9 January 2017].
 Hansen WG. How Accessibility Shapes Land Use. Journal of the American Institute of Planners. 1959;2(35): 73-76. Available from: doi:10.1080/01944365908978307 [Accessed 5 May 2017].
 Joseph AE, Bantock PR. Measuring Potential Physical Accessibility to General Practitioners in Rural Areas: A Method and Case Study. Social Science & Medicine. 1982;16: 85-90. Available from: doi:10.1016/0277-9536(82)90428-2 [Accessed 1 May 2017].
 Yang DH, George R, Mullner R. Comparing GIS-based Methods of Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Health Services, Journal of Medical Systems. 2005;30(1): 23-32. Available from: doi:10.1007/s10916-006-7400-5 [Accessed 16 March 2017].
 Luo W, Wang F. Measures of Spatial Accessibility to Health Care in GIS Environment: Synthesis and a Case Study in the Chicago Region. Environment and Planning B: Urban Analytics and City Science. 2003;30: 865-884. Available from: doi:10.1068/b29120 [Accessed 8 March 2017].
 Luo W, Qi Y. An Enhanced Two-step Floating Catchment Area (E2SFCA) Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to Primary Care Physicians. Health and Place. 2009;15: 1100-1107. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.06.002 [Accessed 20 February 2017].
 Ngamini Ngui A, Apparicio P. Optimizing the two-step Floating Catchment Area Method for Measuring Spatial Accessibility to medical Clinics in Montreal. BMC Health Services Research. 2011;11(166). Available from: doi:10.1186/1472-6963-11-166 [Accessed 16 September 2017].
 Wan N, Zhan FB, Zou B, Chow E. A Relative Spatial Access Approach for Analyzing Potential Spatial Access to Colorectal Cancer Service in Texas. Applied Geography. 2012;32: 291-299. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.apgeog.2011.05.001 [Accessed 9 October 2017].
 Mao L, Nekorchuk D. Measuring spatial accessibility to healthcare for populations with multiple transportation modes. Health and Place. 2013;24: 115-122. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2013.08.008 [Accessed 16 September 2017].
 Dony CC, Demelle EM, Demelle EC. Re-conceptualizing Accessibility to Parks in Multi-Modal Cities: A Variable-width Floating Catchment Area (VFCA) method. Landscape and Urban Planning. 2015;143: 90-99. Available from: doi:10.1016/j.landurbplan.2015.06.011 [Accessed 16 August 2017].
 OECD. OECD Regional Typology. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/cfe/regional-policy/OECD_regional_typology_Nov2012.pdf [Accessed 2 February 2018].
 Croatian Bureau of Statistics. Census of Population, Households and Dwellings 2011. Available from: https://www.dzs.hr/default_e.htm [Accessed 16 September 2017].
 Schuurman N, Berube M, Crooks VA. Measuring Potential Spatial Access to Primary Health Care Physicians Using a Modified Gravity Model. The Canadian Geographer. 2010;54(1):29-45. Available from: doi:10.1111/j.1541-0064.2009.00301.x [Accessed 15 November 2017].
 Viegas J. Urban Accessibility: perception, measurement and equitable provision. Available from: https://www.oecd.org/gov/regional-policy/PPT-Viegas.pdf [Accessed 10 October 2018].
 Millward H, Spinney J, Scott D. Active - Transport Walking Behaviour: Destinations, Durations, Distances. Journal of Transport Geography. 2013;28: 101-110.
 Department for Transport. National Travel Survey. Available from: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/national-travel-survey-statistics [Accessed 11 October 2018].
 Transport Analysis. Travel and commodity flow survey. Available from: http://trafa.se/en/travel-survey/ [Accessed 12 October 2018].
 INFAS, DLR. Mobilität in Deutschland 2008. Available from: http://www.mobilitaet-in-deutschland.de/pdf/infas_MiD2008_Abschlussbericht_I.pdf [Accessed 10 October 2018].
 Central Statistics Office. National Travel Survey 2009. Available from: http://www.ucd.ie/t4cms/NTS%20Report%202009.pdf [Accessed 12 October 2018].
Copyright (c) 2019 Katarina Mostarac, Zvonko Kavran, Estera Rakić
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).