Approach to Human Capital in National Postal Providers: A Cross-country Analysis in Europe

  • Dalibor Gottwald University of Pardubice, Faculty of Transport Engineering
  • Eva Zákorová University of Pardubice, Faculty of Transport Engineering
  • Libor Švadlenka University of Pardubice, Faculty of Transport Engineering
  • Hana Pavlisová Masaryk University, Faculty of Education
Keywords: human capital, national postal providers, postal service


The article investigates human capital in national postal providers (NPPs), which is an area that has yet to be underpinned by research. There is a number of works dealing with human capital, but only few address human capital in the postal service sector. The main aim of the article is to define differences in approach to human capital management in selected NPPs. Differences are expressed via the overall Human Capital Index (HCI). Due to the fact that so far there has been no complex research analyzing activities related to human capital in NPPs, it was necessary to carry out a content analysis of annual reports of selected NPPs. Results of the analysis served as a basis for expression of overall HCI. This study brings new insights into the topic and contributes to the sustainable development of the field.

Author Biographies

Dalibor Gottwald, University of Pardubice, Faculty of Transport Engineering

Ph.D. Candidate

Department of Transport Management, Marketing and Logistics

Eva Zákorová, University of Pardubice, Faculty of Transport Engineering

Assistant professor

Department of Transport Management, Marketing and Logistics

Libor Švadlenka, University of Pardubice, Faculty of Transport Engineering

Associate professor

Department of Transport Management, Marketing and Logistics

Hana Pavlisová, Masaryk University, Faculty of Education


Department of Education


Schiek D. Economic and Social Integration The Challenge for EU Constitutional Law. Massachusetts: Edward Edgar Publishing Limited; 2012.

Sarac D, Kopic M, Mostarac K, Kujacic M, Jovanovic B. Application of set covering location problem for organizing the public postal network. Promet-Traffic & Transportation. 2016;28(4):403-13.

Coleman JS. Social Capital in the Creation of Human-Capital. American Journal of Sociology. 1988;94:S95-S120.

Edvinsson L, Malone MS. Intellectual Capital: Realizing Your Company's True Value by Finding Its Hidden Brainpower. New York: Harper Business; 1997.

Donate MJ, Pena I, de Pablo JDS. HRM practices for human and social capital development: effects on innovation capabilities. International Journal of Human Resource Management. 2016;27(9):928-53.

Marzo G, Scarpino E. Exploring intellectual capital management in SMEs: an in-depth Italian case study. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 2016;17(1):27-51.

Rossi C, Cricelli L, Grimaldi M, Greco M. The strategic assessment of intellectual capital assets: An application within Terradue Srl. Journal of Business Research. 2016;69(5):1598-603.

Yaseen SG, Dajani D, Hasan Y. The impact of intellectual capital on the competitive advantage: Applied study in Jordanian telecommunication companies. Computers in Human Behavior. 2016;62:168-75.

Zéghal D, Maaloul A. Analysing value added as an indicator of intellectual capital and its consequences on company performancenull. Jnl of Intellectual Capital. 2010;11(1):39-60.

Scafarto V, Ricci F, Scafarto F. Intellectual capital and firm performance in the global agribusiness industry The moderating role of human capital. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 2016;17(3):530-52.

Singh B, Rao MK. Effect of intellectual capital on dynamic capabilities. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 2016;29(2):129-49.

Mehralian G, Rasekh HR, Akhavan P, Sadeh MR. The Impact of Intellectual Capital Efficiency on Market Value: An Empirical Study from Iranian Pharmaceutical Companies. Iranian Journal of Pharmaceutical Research. 2012;11(1):195-207.

Collewaert V, Manigart S. Valuation of Angel-Backed Companies: The Role of Investor Human Capital. Journal of Small Business Management. 2016;54(1):356-72.

de Albuquerque NR, Vellasco MMMR, Mun J, Housel TJ. Human Capital valuation and return of investment on corporate education. Expert Systems with Applications. 2012;39(15):11934-43.

Shahzad K, Bajwa SU, Ansted RB, Mamoon D, Khaliq ur R. Evaluating human resource management capacity for effective implementation of advanced metering infrastructure by electricity distribution companies in Pakistan. Utilities Policy. 2016;41:107-17.

Czaller L. Increasing social returns to human capital: evidence from Hungarian regions. Regional Studies. 2016:1-11.

Ngcwangu S. The Ideological Underpinnings of World Bank Tvet Policy: Implications of the Influence of Human Capital Theory on South African Tvet Policy. Education as Change. 2015;19(3):24-45.

Weckroth M, Kemppainen T. Human capital, cultural values and economic performance in European regions. Regional Studies, Regional Science. 2016;3(1):239-57.

Kirdina SG. Methodological institutionalism as a new principle of complex social systems' analysis at meso-level. Terra Economicus. 2016;14(1):98-108.

Polachek SW, Das T, Thamma-Apiroam R. Micro- and Macroeconomic Implications of Heterogeneity in the Production of Human Capital. Journal of Political Economy. 2015;123(6):1410-55.

Wright PM, Boswell WR. Desegregating HRM: A review and synthesis of micro and macro human resource management research. Journal of Management. 2002;28(3):247-76.

Ulrich D, Younger J, Brockbank W, Ulrich M. HR from the Outside In: Six Competencies for the Future of Human Resources. McGraw-Hill Education; 2012. p. 336.

Ployhart RE, Moliterno TP. Emergence of the human capital resource: a multilevel model. Academy of Management Review. 2011;36(1):127-50.

Nielsen K. Human capital and new venture performance: the industry choice and performance of academic entrepreneurs. Journal of Technology Transfer. 2015;40(3):453-74.

Ployhart RE, Nyberg AJ, Reilly G, Maltarich MA. Human Capital Is Dead; Long Live Human Capital Resources! Journal of Management. 2014;40(2):371-98.

Vieira VR. Public and private: change and continuity in economy through two meta-fields in society. Cambridge Review of International Affairs. 2014;27(1):21-38.

Pollitt M, Stern J. Human resource constraints for electricity regulation in developing countries: Developments since 2001. Utilities Policy. 2011;19(2):53-60.

Hermann C, Flecker J. Privatization of Public Services : Impacts for Employment, Working Conditions, and Service Quality in Europe2012.

Slack R, Munz M. Intellectual capital reporting, leadership and strategic change. Journal of Applied Accounting Research. 2016;17(1):61-83.

Priyadharshini SK, Kamalanabhan TJ, Madhumathi R. Human resource management and firm performance. International Journal of Business Innovation and Research. 2015;9(2):229-50.

Sharma JK, Shukla S. Strategic HR orientation of companies in India: A content analysis approach. Prabandhan: Indian Journal of Management. 2015;8(7):7-22.

Kateb I. Voluntary human capital disclosure in French annual reports. International Journal of Learning and Intellectual Capital. 2015;12(4):323-41.

Adelowotan MO. Human capital development (HCD) through open, distance and e-learning: Evidence from corporate annual reports (Cars) of top South African listed companies. Turkish Online Journal of Distance Education. 2014;15(3):68-79.

Gamerschlag R. Value relevance of human capital information. Journal of Intellectual Capital. 2013;14(2):325-45.

Moloi T. Governance of risks in South Africa's public higher education institutions (HEIs). Investment Management and Financial Innovations. 2016;13(2):226-34.

Biswas PK, Bala SK. Usefulness of corporate annual reports to individual investors in Bangladesh. International Journal of Disclosure and Governance. 2016;13(2):97-116.

D'Amico E, Coluccia D, Fontana S, Solimene S. Factors Influencing Corporate Environmental Disclosure. Business Strategy and the Environment. 2016;25(3):178-92.

Universal Postal Union. Member countries 2017 [Available from:

Matloff N. From Algorithms to z-scores: Probabilistic and Statistical Modeling in Computer Science: Orange Grove Texts Plus; 2009.

United Nations. Trends in the Human Development Index, 1990-2015 2016 [Available from:

Ping Chu JK. The Simple Science of Being. USA: Xlibris; 2004.

Ghosh BN, Guven HM, editors. Globalization in Third World. New York: Palgrave Macmillan; 2006.

How to Cite
Gottwald D, Zákorová E, Švadlenka L, Pavlisová H. Approach to Human Capital in National Postal Providers: A Cross-country Analysis in Europe. PROMET [Internet]. 2018Nov.10 [cited 2020Oct.21];30(5):623-3. Available from: