Motivations for Healthy Lifestyle in Railroad Employees

  • Iztok Ostan
  • Borut Poljšak
  • Eva Podovšovnik Axelsson
Keywords: human resources management, railroad, blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, healthy lifestyle, motivations

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to present the results of a survey of railroad employees’ motivation for a healthy lifestyle. For this purpose a specific questionnaire was developed. The study was performed on 245 Slovene railroad workers (168 of them blue-collar ones). The great majority (66.9%) were found to be overweight or obese (BMI 25 or more), with no significant difference between blue- and white-collar workers. The great majority of them were in general aware of having unhealthy nutrition and an unhealthy lifestyle.

Most of the employees felt the need to improve (at least in part) their nutrition (74.7%) and lifestyle (78.0%); the majority (67.8%) also declared that they could adopt a healthier lifestyle despite the constraints of everyday life and work conditions; however, 57.6% said that they had been already putting considerable effort into a healthier nutrition and lifestyle. Thus the effort needed to overcome constraints toward a healthier lifestyle seems to be the key problem: the majority (54.3%) would rather choose walking than running or other intensive forms of exercise; they are not ready to do it for more than one hour per day (60%), and they are not ready to give up permanently food that they like and that is considered unhealthy. The differences in motivations for a healthy lifestyle between blue- and white-collar workers were not significant at the 0.05 level.

Further research in this field is needed; however, it seems that the methods of efficient marginal modifications of lifestyle are required.

KEYWORDS

human resources management, railroad, blue-collar workers, white-collar workers, healthy lifestyle, motivations

References

Longman dictionary of contemporary English: Third edition, Longman Group Ltd., Essex, 1978/1995

Berg, H.Y.: Understanding subgroups of novice drivers. A basis for increased safety and health. Ph.D. Thesis, Linköping University, Sweden, 2001

Chliaoutakis, J., Koukouli, S., Lajunen, T., & Tzamalouka, G. : Lifestyle traits as predictors of driving behaviour in urban areas of Greece, Transportation research Part F. Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 8, No. 6, 2005, pp. 413-428

Tillmann, J.N., & Beard, M.T.: Manager’s Healthy Lifestyles, Coping Strategies, Job Stressors and Performance: An Occupational Stress Model, Journal of Theory Construction & Testing, Vol. 5, No. 1, 2001, pp. 7-11

Bugajska, J., Widerszal-Bazyl, M., Radkovicz, P., Pasierski, T., Szulczyk, G.A., Zabek, J., Wojciechowska, B., & Jedryka-Goral, A.: Perceived work-related stress and early atherosclerotic changes in healthy employees, International Archives of Occupational & Environmental Health, Vol. 81, No. 8, 2008, pp. 1037-1043

DeFrank, R.S., Konopaske, R., & Ivanchevich, J.M.: Executive travel stress: Perils of the road warrior, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2000, pp. 58-70

Quick, J.C., Gavin, J.H., Cooper, C.I., & Quick, J.D.: Executive health: building strength managing risks, Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 14, No. 2, 2000, pp. 34-43

Neck, C.P., & Cooper, K.H.: The fit executives: Health, stress, and success. Academy of Management Executive, Vol. 14, No. 29, 2000, pp. 107-121

Dekker, S.: The field guide to understand human error, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot, 2006

Reason, J.: Managing the Risks of Organizational Accidents, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot, 1997

Strauch, B.: Investigating Human Error: Incidents, Accidents, and Complex Systems, Ashgate Publishing Ltd., Aldershot, 2002

Gnardellis, C., Tzamalouka, G., Papadakai, M., & Chliaoutakis, J.E.: An investigation of the effect of sleepiness, drowsy driving, and lifestyle on vehicle crashes, Transportation Research Part F: Traffic Psychology and Behaviour, Vol. 11, No. 4, 2008, pp. 270-281

Božič, Mija: Stres pri delu. Priporočnik za prepoznavanje in odpravljanje stresa pri delu poslovnih sekretarjev/ Stress at work: Manual for identification and elimination of stress in the work of business secretaries. Ljubljana: GV Izobraževanje, 2003

Šimunović, L., Bošnjak, I., & Mandžuka, S.: Intelligent Transport Systems and Pedestrian Traffic. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 21, No. 2, 2009, pp. 141-152

Tollazzi, T., Rencelj, M., & Zalar, B.: Traffic Safety of Older Drivers in Various Types of Road Intersections. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 193-201

Muha, R., & Sever, D.: Influence of Society Changes on the Model of Hazardous Goods Road Transportation. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp.133-142

Vaziri, M., Fathi, M., & Hoseini, S.M.S.: Controlling Longitudinal Safe Distance Between Vehicles. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 21, No. 5, pp. 303-310

Alispahić, S., Antunović, Z., & Becirović, E.: Training of Drivers in the Function of Road Traffic Safety. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 19, No. 5, pp. 323-327

Kosor, D.: Increase of Air Traffic Safety in the Republic of Croatia Using New Methods of Analyzing Secondary Radar Parameters. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 11, Supplement No. 4, pp. 149-154

Godec, A.: An Approach to the Safety Problem of Railway-Road Crossings in the Transport Systems. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 15, No. 5, pp. 299-306

Mlakar, D., & Sever, D.: Railway Traffic Management as a Function of the New Infrastructure Manager. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 19, No. 6, pp. 387-394

Buksa, A., Segulja, I., & Tomas, V.: Adjustment of Maintenance Approach for Improved Operability and Safety of Ship Navigation. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 22, No. 2, pp. 95-103

Sumanovac, D.: Critical Situations and the Flight Safety System. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 20, No. 4, pp. 223-229

Marušić, Z., Alfirević, I., & Pita. O.: Maintenance Reliability Program as Essential Prerequisite of Flight Safety. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 21, No. 4, pp. 269-277

Bond, M.H.: Finding Universal Dimensions of Individual Variation in Multicultural Studies of Values: The Rokeach and Chinese Value Surveys, Journal of personality and social psychology, Vol. 55, No. 6, 1988, pp. 1009-1015

Musek, J.: Osebnost in vrednote/ Personality and Values, Educy, Ljubljana, 1993

Schwartz, S.H., & Bilsky, W.: Toward a Theory of the Universal Content and Structure of Values: Extensions and Cross-Cultural Replications, Journal of personality and social psychology, Vol. 58, 1990, pp. 878-891

Paton, N.: Unhealthy lifestyle choices on the up as downturn countries, Occupational health, Vol. 62, No. 6, pp. 7-7

Ostan, I., Ambrozius, B., & Ostan, A.: Osnove upravljanja s človeškimi viri (1.del): Ko zdravila odpovedo/ Basics of human resource management (Part 1): When drugs fail, Aura. Ljubljana, 2001

Barnes, B. L. (1992). Stress in Transport Workers. Indian Journal of Clinical Psychology, 19, 14-17

Diem, G. A.: Job stress in the transportation industry, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Denver, Denver, 2002

Ostan, Iztok, Poljšak, Borut, Podovšovnik Axelsson, Eva (2011). Occupational Stress Perception and Healthy Lifestyle in Railroad Workers. Promet Traffic-Traffico, Vol. 23, No. 3, pp. 195-203

Ravussin, E., & Bouchard, C.: Human Genomics and Obesity: Finding Appropriate Drug Targets, European journal of clinical pharmacology, Vol. 410, 2000, pp. 131-145

Seidell, J.C., & Flegal, K.M.: Assessing Obesity: Classification and Epidemiology, British medical bulletin, Vol. 53, 1997, pp. 238-252

Taubes, G.: An Obesity Rate Rise, Experts Struggle to Explain Why, Science, Vol. 280, 1998, pp. 1367-1368

Food and Agriculture Organization/ World Health Organization: Fruit and Vegetables for Health: Report of a Joint FAO/WHO Workshop, 1-3 September 2004, Kobe, Japan. 2004

Kan, K., & Tsai, W-D.: Obesity and Risk Knowledge, Journal of health economics, Vol. 23, 2004, pp. 907-934

Caldji, C., Diorio, J., & Meaney, M.J.: Variations in Maternal Care in Infancy Regulate the Development of Stress Reactivity, Biological psychiatry, Vol. 48, 2000, pp. 1164-1174

Francis, M., Diorio, J., Liu, D. et al.: Nongenomic Transmission Across Generations of Maternal Behavior and Stress Response in Rat. Science, No. 286, 1999, pp. 1155-1158

Weaver, J.C.G., Cervoni, N., Champagne, F.A. et al.: Epigenetic Programming by Maternal Behaviour, Nature neuroscience, Vol. 7, No. 8, 2004, pp. 847-854

Dahlman, I., Linder, K., Arvidsson Nordström, E. et al.: Changes in Adipose Tissue Gene Expression with Energy-Restricted Diets in Obese Women, The American journal of clinical nutrition, No. 81, 2005, pp. 1275-1285

Kallio, P. Kolehmainen, M., Laaksonen, D.E., Kekäläinen, J., et al.: Dietary Carbohydrates Modification Induces Alterations in Gene Expression in Abdominal Subcutaneous Adipose Tissue in Persons with the Metabolic Syndrome: The FUNGENUS Study, The American journal of clinical nutrition, No. 85, 2007, pp. 1417-24

Zieker, D., Fehrenbach, E., Dietzsch, J. et al.: cDNA Microray Analysis Reveals Novel Candidate Genes Expressed in Human Peripheral Blood Following Exhaustive Exercise, Physiological genomics, No. 23, 2005, pp. 287-294

Buttner, P., Mosing, S., Lechtermann, A. et al.: Exercise Affects the Gene Expression Profiles of Human White Blood Cells, Journal of applied physiology, No. 102, 2007, pp. 26-36

Connolly, P.H., Caiozzo, V.J., Zaldivar, F. et al.: Effects of Exercise on Gene Expression in Human Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells, Journal of applied physiology, No. 97, 2004, pp. 1461-1469

Ornish, D., Magbanua, M.J.M., Weidner, G. et al.: Changes in Prostate Gene Expression in Men Undergoing an Intensive Nutrition and Lifestyle Intervention. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, No. 105, 2008, pp. 8369-8374

Ostan, I., Poljšak, B., Simčič, M., & Tijskens, L.M.M.: Nutrition for the Selfish Gene, Trends in food science & technology, Vol. 20, No. 8, 2009, pp. 313-374

Ostan, I., Poljšak, B., Simčič, M., & Tijskens, L.M.M.: Appetite for the selfish gene, Appetite. Vol. 54, No. 3, pp. 442-449

Dawkins, R.: The Selfish Gene/ Sebični gen, Mladinska knjiga, Ljubljana, 1976/2006

Dawkins, R.: The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene, Oxford University Press, Oxford, New York, 1982/1999

Lindquist, T.L., & Cooper, C.L.: Using lifestyle and coping to reduce job stress and improve health in “at risk” office workers, Stress Medicine, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1999, pp. 143-153

Cartwright, S., & Cooper, C.: Individually targeted Interventions. In Barling, J., Kelloway, E.K., & Frone, M.R. (Eds.), Handbook of work stress, Sage Publications, Thousand Oaks, London, New Delhi, 2005, pp. 607-622

Kompier, M., & Cooper, C. (Eds.): Preventing stress, improving productivity: European case studies in the workplace, Routledge, London, 1999

Ivanchevich, J., & Matteson, M.T.: Organizational level stress management interventions: A review of recommendations, Journal of Organizational Behaviour Management, No. 8, 1987, pp. 229-248

How to Cite
1.
Ostan I, Poljšak B, Podovšovnik Axelsson E. Motivations for Healthy Lifestyle in Railroad Employees. PROMET [Internet]. 1 [cited 2019Dec.15];24(1):45-2. Available from: http://traffic.fpz.hr/index.php/PROMTT/article/view/267
Section
Articles