Travelling Habits and Perceived Limitations of Older City Bus Users
The purpose was to investigate the interrelation between the age of older city bus users, their travelling habits, their estimated physical (dis)abilities and perceived safety during the trip using the Ljubljana public transportation system. Methods: 101 older bus users agreed to participate in a street survey by answering a questionnaire. Results indicate that the habits of bus users are not age dependent. The frequency of public bus use, the walking distance to the nearest bus stop, the estimated physical abilities and perceived physical limitations of the bus users were not associated to the chronological age. Respondents reported on average 3±1.6 perceived physical limitations and 37% of them perceived their travelling habits to be affected by their physical limitations. While decreased perceived safety during the bus journey was significantly related to the chronological age: significantly more bus users of the oldest-old group reported not having enough time to occupy a seat before the bus drove off, although a significantly higher proportion of older-old adults were offered a seat by their fellow travellers. In conclusion, the perception of physical fitness and health problems are more important contributing factors for the use of public transportation than the chronological age.
World Health Organization. Global age-friendly cities: a guide [Internet]. Geneva: WHO; 2007 [cited 2016 Sep 30]. Available from: http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/43755/1/9789241547307_
Forman DE, Berman AD, McCabe CH, Baim DS Wei JY. PTCA in the elderly – the young-old versus the old-old. J Amer Ger Soc. 1992;40(1):19-22.
Banister D, Bowling A. Quality of life for the elderly: the transport dimension. Transp Policy. 2004 Apr;11(2):105-15. doi: 10.1016/S0967-
Lord SR, Menz HB, Tiedemann A. A physiological profile approach to falls risk assessment and prevention. Phys Ther. 2003;83(3):237-252.
Bohannon RW. Comfortable and maximum walking speed of adults aged 20-79 years: reference values and determinants. Age Ageing. 1997;26:15-19.
Rugelj D, Tomšič M, Sevšek F. Do Functionally fit elderly community-dwelling subjects have enough time to safely cross the road? Promet – Traffic & Transportation. 2013;25(1):55-62.
Metz DH. Mobility of older people and their quality of life. Transp Policy. 2000;7(2):149-52. doi: 10.1016/S0967-070X(00)00004-4
Preston J, Rajé F. Accessibility, mobility and transport-related social exclusi-on. J Tran Geo. 2007;15(3):151-160.
OECD Regional statistics. Metropolitan areas. [Internet]. Paris: OECD; 2015 [cited 2016 Sep 30]. Available from: http://www.oecd-ilibrary.
Henser DA. Some insights into the key influences on trip-changing activity and public transport use of seniors and the elderly. Int J Sustain Transport. 2007;1(1):53-68. doi: 10.1080/15568310601097004
Mestna občina Ljubljana. Statistični letopis [in Slovenian] [Internet]. Ljubljana: Mestna občina Ljubljana; 2013 [cited 2016 Sep 30]. Available from: http://www.ljubljana.si/si/ljubljana/ljubljana-v-stevilkah/statisticne-publikacije/
Mestna občina Ljubljana. Akcijski načrt: starosti prijazna Ljublana [in Slovenian] [Internet]. Ljubljana: Mestna občina Ljubljana; 2013 [cited 2016 Sep 30]. Available from: http://www.ljubljana.si/si/mol/novice/81580/detail.html
Mestna občina Ljubljana. Varno na bus [in Slovenian] [Internet]. Ljubljana: Mestna občina Ljubljana; 2011 [cited 2016 Sep 30]. Available from: http://www.lpp.si/sites/default/files/lpp_si/stran/datoteke/varno_na_bus_z_novim_popravkom.pdf
Kozina J. Modeliranje prostorske dostopnosti do postajališč javnega potniškega prometa v Ljubljani [in Slovenian]. Geogr Vestn. 2010;82(1):97-107
Tiran J, Mladenovič L, Koblar S. Računanje dostopnosti do javnega potniškega prometa v Ljubljani z metodo PTAL [in Slovenian]. In: Ciglič R, Perko D, Zorn M, editors. Digitalni prostor. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC (GIS v Sloveniji; 12), 2014; p. 155-62.
Svensson H. The public transport preferences of elderly people: a study related to Individual capacity and environmental stress in service route traffic and other systems [PhD Thesis]. Lund: Lund Institute of Technology; 2003.
Ljubljana. Wikipedia [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Februar 12]. Available from: https://sl.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ljubljana
Borås. Wikipedia [Internet]. 2017 [cited 2017 Februar 12] Available from: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bor%C3%A5s
Kirk A, Grant R, Bird R. Passenger casualties in non-collision incidents on buses and coaches in Great Britain. Paper presented at: 18th International Technical Conference on the Enhanced Safety of Vehicles; 2003 May 19-22; Nagoya, Japan.
Hess DB. Walking to the bus: perceived versus actual walking distance to bus stops for older adults. Transportation. 2012;39(2):247-66. doi: 10.1007/s11116-011-9341-1
Zavodnik Lamovšek A, Čeh M, Košir U. Analiza dostopnosti prebivalcev do javnih dejavnosti z medkrajevnim avtobusnim prometom [in Slovenian]. Geografski informacijski sistem v Sloveniji 2009-2010. Ljubljana: Založba ZRC (GIS v Sloveniji; 12), 2010; p. 251-60.
Zhao F, Chow L, Li M, Ubaka I, Gan A. Forecasting transit walk accessibility: regression model alternative to buffer method. Transp Res. 2001;1835:34-41. doi: 10.3141/1835-05
Butler AA, Lord SR, Fitzpatrick RC. Perceptions of speed and risk: experimental studies of road crossing by older people. PLoS ONE. 2016;11(4):e0152617. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0152617
Hong K, Lee KM, Jang SN. Incidence and related factors of traffic accidents among the older population in rapidly aging society. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2015; 60(3):471.7. doi: 10.1016/j.archger.2015.01.015.
Alsnih R, Hensher DA. The mobility and accessibility expectations of seniors in an aging population. Transp. Res. Part A: Policy Pract. 2003 Dec;37(10):903-16. doi 10.1016/S0965-8564(03)00073-9
Broome K, McKenna K, Fleming J, Worrall L. Bus use and older people: a literature review applying the Person-Environment-occupation model in macro practice. Scand J Occup Ther. 2009 Mar;16(1):3-12. doi: 10.1080/11038120802326222
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).