Integration of Transport-relevant Data within Image Record of the Surveillance System
Integration of the collected information on the road within the image recorded by the surveillance system forms a unified source of transport-relevant data about the supervised situation. The basic assumption is that the procedure of integration changes the image to the extent that is invisible to the human eye, and the integrated data keep identical content. This assumption has been proven by studying the statistical properties of the image and integrated data using mathematical model modelled in the programming language Python using the combinations of the functions of additional libraries (OpenCV, NumPy, SciPy and Matplotlib). The model has been used to compare the input methods of meta-data and methods of steganographic integration by correcting the coefficients of Discrete Cosine Transform JPEG compressed image. For the procedures of steganographic data processing the steganographic algorithm F5 was used. The review paper analyses the advantages and drawbacks of the integration methods and present the examples of situations in traffic in which the formed unified sources of transport-relevant information could be used.
JEITA CP-3451. Exchangeable image file format for digital still cameras: EXIF Version 2.2. [cited 2016 Sep 1]. Available from: http://www.exif.org/Exif2-2.PDF
Extensible Metadata Platform (XMP). [cited 2016 Sep 1]. Available from: http://www.adobe.com/products/xmp/index.html
ISO News. Adobe XMP becomes an ISO standard. [cited 2016 Sep 1]. Available from: http://www.iso.org/iso/home/news_index/news_archive /news.htm?refid=Ref1525
IPTC Core and Extension. Spec. version 1.1, 2010. [cited 2016 Sep 1]. Available from: http://www.iptc.org/std/photometadata/specification/IPTC-PhotoMetadata(200907)_1.pdf
Katzenbeisser S, Petitcolas FAP. Information hiding techniques for steganography and digital watermarking. Boston: Artech House; 2000.
Westfeld A. F5 - A steganographic algorithm: High capacity despite better steganalysis. In: Moskowitz, IS (editor). Information Hiding. 4th International Workshop, IH '01. Pittsburgh, USA; 2001. p. 289-302.
Cole E. Hiding in plain sight: Steganography and the art of covert communication. Indianapolis. Indiana: Wiley Publishing, Inc; 2003.
Curran K, Bailey K. An evaluation of image based steganography methods. International Journal of Digital Evidence. 2003;2(2):1-40.
Kharrazi M, Sencar HT, Memon N. Image steganography: Concepts and practice. WSPC / Lecture Notes. New York, USA: Polytechnic University, Brooklyn; 2004.
Ratnakirti R, Suvamoy C. Quality Evaluation of Image Steganography Techniques: A Heuristics based Approach. International Journal of Security and Its Applications. 2016;10(4):179-196.
Python 2.7. [cited 2016 Sep 1]. Available from: https://www.python.org/download/releases/2.7/
OpenCV 3.1. [cited 2016 Sep 2]. Available from: http://opencv.org/downloads.html
NumPy. [cited 2016 Sep 2]. Available from: http://www.numpy.org/
SciPy. [cited 2016 Sep 2]. Available from: http://www.scipy.org/
Matplotlib. [cited 2016 Sep 2]. Available from: http://matplotlib.org/
Briffa JA, Schaathun HG, Wahab AWA. Has F5 Really Been Broken?. Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Crime Detection and Prevention (ICDP 2009). 2009 Dec 3; London, UK; 2009. p. 1-6.
C# Implementation of F5 Algorithm for JPEG Steganography. [cited 2016 Sep 2]. Available from: https://github.com/otuncelli/f5-steganography
Westfeld Andreas homepage (author of the F5 algorithm). [cited 2016 Sep 2]. Available from: http://www2.htw-dresden.de/~westfeld/
Kulkarni M. An information hiding system using 16*16 quantization table. 2014 International Conference on Advances in Communication and Computing Technologies (ICACACT). 2014 Aug 10-11; Mumbai, India; 2014. p. 29-232.
Khedekar A, Ilag A, Pooja M, Tatwadarshi PN. Steganography in Audio/Video files using Modified F5 Algorithm. International Journal of Computer Applications (0975 – 8887). National Conference on Role of Engineers in Nation Building (NCRENB-15). 2015 May; New York, USA; 2015. p. 9-12.
Neufeld A, Ker AD. A study of embedding operations and locations for steganography in H.264 video. Proceedings of SPIE 8665. Media Watermarking, Security, and Forensics. 2013 Mar 22; doi: 10.1117/12.2022495
Pennebaker WB, Mitchell JL. JPEG Still Image Data Compression Standard. Springer-Verlag US; 1993.
ECMA-404. The JSON Data Interchange Standard. [cited 2016 Mar 5]. Available from: http://www.ecma-international. org/publications/files/ECMA-ST/ECMA-404.pdf
JSON. [cited 2016 Mar 5]. Available from: http://www.json.org/
Extensible Markup Language – XML. [cited 2016 Sep 2]. Available from: https://www.w3.org/XML
Tsuyuzaki K, Onizuka M. NoSQL Database Characteristics and Benchmark System. NTT Technical Review. 2012;10(12):22-26.
Brewer E. CAP Twelve Years Later: How the “Rules” Have Changed. IEEE Computer Society. Computer. 2012;45(2):23-29.
Kumar SP, Lefebvre S, Chiky R, Gressier Soudan E. Evaluating consistency on the fly using YCSB. Computational Intelligence for Multimedia Understanding (IWCIM). 2014 International Workshop. Paris, France; 2014. p. 1-6.
Cooper BF, et al. Benchmarking cloud serving systems with YCSB. Proceedings of the 1st ACM symposium on Cloud computing. SoCC ’10. 2010 June 10-11; Indianapolis, USA. New York: ACM; 2010. p. 143-154.
Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:
- Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.
- Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work (See The Effect of Open Access).