A Bi-Objective Model for Siting Park-and-Ride Facilities with Spatial Equity Constraints
A bi-objective programming model (BP) with spatial equity constraints is proposed to site park-and-ride (P&R) facilities in traffic networks. Both the number and locations of P&R facilities are determined. The maximal coverage and minimal resource utilization criteria, which are generally conflicting, are simultaneously considered to reveal the trade-off between the quality and cost of coverage. Furthermore, the concept of passenger flow volume per cost is defined and several properties of the model solutions are analyzed. Finally, this model is applied to site P&R facilities in Anaheim, California. Application results show the trade-offs associated with passenger flow volume, cost and passenger flow volume per cost, and the effects of spatial equity constraints on the spatial deployment of P&R facilities.
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