Validation of Microscopic Traffic Models Based on GPS Precise Measurement of Vehicle Dynamics
AbstractA necessary stage in the development of traffic models is model validation, where the developed model is verified by comparing its outputs with observed data. The most frequently used variables are average value of speed, flow intensity and flow density (during a selected period).It is possible to use these values for the calibration of macroscopic models, but one cannot always obtain a relevant microscopic dynamic model in this way. A typical use of the microsimulation models is the capacity assessment, where this sort of data (flow, speed and queues) is considered to be standard and sufficient. However microsimulation is also increasingly being used for other assessments (e.g. noise and emissions) where the correct representation of each vehicle’s acceleration and deceleration plays a crucial role. Another emerging area is the use of microsimulation to predict near-miss situations and conflicts to identify dangerous and accident prone locations. In such assessments the vehicle trajectory, distance from other vehicles as well as velocity and acceleration are very important.Additional source of data, which can be used to validate vehicle dynamics in microsimulation models, is the Global Positioning System (GPS) that is able to determine vehicle position with centimeter accuracy.In this article we discuss validation of selected microscopic traffic models, based on the comparison of simulated vehicle dynamics with observed dynamic characteristics of vehicles recorded by the precise geodetic GPS equipment.
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